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Flashcards in Micro Cards Deck (311):
1

Cellulitis?

Pasteurella

2

undulant fever?

Brucella

3

Unpasteurized dairy?

Brucella; listeria; campylobacter

4

Dairy products and dogs? treat with?

Yersenia-- aminoglycosides with tetracycline; bipolar staining

5

Puppies and bloody diarrhea?

Campylobacter

6

Cat scratch disease? Treatment?

Bartonella; macrolides and doxycycline

7

Casseating granulomas and painful ulcers?

Francisella-- from rabbits (think of radishes underground in video)

8

Aerosols of cattle; no rash; fever; pneumonia

Q fever; Coxiella

9

Osteomyelitis and cellulitis?

Pasteurella

10

Gray vaginal discharge

Gardnerella

11

Clue cells

Gardnerella

12

Gray discharge-- pH?

Between 5-6.5

13

Treatment of gray discharge?

Gardnerella-- metronidazole

14

+ whiff test plus clue cells?

Gardnerella

15

Patchy infiltrates on X ray but patient not in bad shape?

Mycoplasma pneumonia

16

IgM cold agglutinins?

Mycoplasma pneumonia

17

Bacteria with no cell wall+ eatons agar?

Mycoplasma pneumonia

18

Treatment of bacteria that causes patchy infiltrates on xray in patient with fever, headache, non productive cough?

Mycoplasma pneumonia required macrolides or fluoroquinolones

19

Only bacteria with cholesterol in cell membrane?

Mycoplasma

20

Rash that starts at wrist treatment?

Rickettsia rickettsii-- RMSF-- doxycycline (Rickets tires)

21

Weil felix agglutination test- this bacteria requires what cofactors

CoA(ch) and NAD+ (name of drink)

22

Causes vasculitis-- treatment?

Rocky mountain spotted fever-- doxycycline

23

Rash that starts on wrist-- spread via?

Dermatick--RMSF (dermacenter)

24

Spread by louse?

Rickettsia prowazekii (throwing around louse football)

25

Rash starts out centrally and spread out sparing face, palms and soles- requires what substances to proliferate?

R. prowazekii-- NAD+ (name of drink) and CoA (CH)

26

Palm sole rash Ddx: 3?

CARS: Coxsackie a infection; RMSF; Syphilis-- drive CARS using palms and soles

27

Myalgias, pneumonia, centrally located rash-- requires?

Prowazekii; NAD+ and CoA

28

Berry like inclusions in cytoplasm?

Ehrlichiosis (monocytes with morula)

29

Monocytes with morula

Ehrlichiosis (berry like inclusions)

30

Histology of Ehrlichiosis?

Monocytes with morula

31

Histology of Anaplasmosis?

Granulocytes with morula in cytoplasm

32

Granulocytes with morula in cytoplasm?

Anaplasmosis

33

No arthropod vector, no rash, fever, hepatitis

Coxiella (Curly Q)-- think of cow with liver painted on

34

Cannot make own ATP; STD?

Chlamydia

35

Chlamydia replication?

Replicate in reticulate body; and infect via elementary body

36

Elementary body?

Chlamydia's enfectious form

37

Joint pain; sexually active; conjunctivitis-- treatment?

Chlaymydia-- treat with macrolide (favored due to one time dose) or doxycycline (ceftriaxone to cover gonorrhaea)

38

Leading cause of blindness world wide?

Chlamydia A-C (blind pirate)

39

Chlamydia is missing what in cell wall?

Muramic acid-- so treat with macrolide

40

Cytoplasmic inclusion seen on giemsa stain? Treatment?

Chlamydia-- macrolides or doxy

41

lacks Muramic acid in cell wall-- blindness?

Chlamydia

42

Short sudden bursts of coughing, watery discharge from vagina-- ?

Chlamydia D-K-- staccato cough

43

Enlarged lymph nodes in groin area-- start off painless and become painful?

Lymphogranuloma venereum L1-L3

44

Variable gram stain?

Gardnerella--treat with KOH prep

45

Stages 1,2,3 of lyme disease?

1) erythema chronicum migrans (bulls eye)-- flu like sx2) Cardiac block with bells palsy3) Musculoskeletal (arthritis) and neurologic (encephalitis and polyneuropathy)

46

Host of child tick lyme disease?

Mouse

47

Host of adult tick in Lyme disease?

Deer

48

Central clearing rash-- tick? what else uses this tick?

Ixode; Babesia is also carried by Ixode tick

49

AV nodal block after camping trip a few months ago--? Treatment?

Doxy (Robbin hood on cycle shooting bow)Lyme disease

50

Stain for lyme disease?

Wright stain (Sir Wright) and Giemsa

51

Reddening of eyes but no exudate?-- found in?

Leptospira interrogans-- water contaminated with animal urine (Think surfer)

52

Jaundice, fever, question mark shaped bacteria?

Leptospira

53

Leptospira looks like on histology?

Question mark-- duh it's a spirochete

54

Bug that can cause kidney dysfunction; found in urine contaminated water?

Leptospira

55

Jaundice, azotemia, fever, hemorrhage, and anemia?

Leptospira-- Weil's disease (think Whale) (surfer, with kidney, RBCs)

56

Weil's disease?

icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis-- severe form of jaundice and azotemia associated with leptospira infection

57

Painless genital ulcer? screen with? confirm with?

Syphilis; screen with VDRL; confirm with FTA-ABS

58

Immune response of syphilis?

Th1 even though Treponema is extracellular

59

Condyloma lata

Treponema

60

Condyloma accumulata

HPV

61

Hallmark of tertiary syph?

Gummas (chronic granulomas)

62

Tabes dorsalis causes neuro issues in wha tpart of spinal cord?

Dorsal column

63

Tertiary syphilis may have what cardiac affect?

Aortitis dt vaso vasorum destruction

64

Charcot joints

Tertiary syph-- degeneration of weight bearing joints

65

Positive Romberg test + funny acting pupils

Tertiary syphilis

66

Rash in syphilis is?

Palms and soles (also seen in coxsackie A, rickettsia)-- drive CARS with palms and soles

67

Anterior convexing tibia in newborn?

Congential syph-- saber shins

68

Saddle nose?

Congenital syph

69

Teeth in congenital syph (2)?

mulberry molars and hutchinson teeth

70

Placental transmission of syph usually occurs when?

First trimester

71

Tree barking aorta?

Tertiary syphilis-- vaso vasorum destruction leads to aortitis

72

Causes false positive in VDRL syph test?

Viruses (mono, hep); Drugs; Rheumatic fever; Lupus, leprosy

73

Another screening test for syph other than VDRL?

RPR

74

Cause of reaction that begins after treatment of syphilis?

Killed bacteria releases pyrogens-- Jarisch Herxheimer reaction

75

Maculopapular rash (5)

Measles, Rubella, Scarlet fever, Syphilis, Parvo B19

76

Rash caused by Rubella?

Maculopapular

77

Rash caused by Scarlet fever?

Maculopapular

78

Rash caused by Syphilis?

Maculopapular

79

Cranial nerve defect in congenital syph?

Deafness (8)

80

Baby born with weird teeth and deaf?

Syph

81

Gram positive abscess formation?

Staph aureus

82

Protein A virulence factor?

Staph aureus

83

Virulence factor of Staph?

Protein A

84

Mechanism of protein A

binds Fc-IgG inhibiting complement fixation and phagocytosis--- STAPH

85

Treatment of resistant strains of gm+ organism with protein A virulence factor?

Vancoymycin (staph)

86

Mech of TSST superantigen?

binds MHCII and TCR resulting in polyclonal t cell activation (Staph)

87

Widespread formation of fluid filled blisters with formation of blisters within minutes of rubbing skin?

Staph-- caused by exfoliative toxin (scalded skin)

88

Bunch of people at picnic get sick from potato salad-- toxin?

Staph-- Enterotoxin

89

Fever, vomiting, desquamating rash, dec blood pressure?

TSST superantigen found in Staph- binds mhcII and TCR resulting in polyclonal t cell activation

90

Pneumonia with patchy infiltrates

M. pneumonia or Staph

91

staph is resistant to ?

Beta lactams because of altered penicillin binding protein

92

Beta hemolytic coagaulase and catalase+?

Staph

93

Causes acute bacterial endocarditis in IV drug users?

staph

94

Staph aureus food poisoning is caused by ingestion of?

preformed toxin

95

Common cause of osteomyelitis; gm+

staph

96

Post viral bacterial pneumonia?

Staph

97

Bug that infects prosthetic devices-- MOA?

Produces adherent biofilms

98

Novobiocin sensitive?

staph epi

99

novobiocin resistant?

staph saprophyticus

100

Staph saprophyticus can cause?

UTIs in sexually active women

101

Treatment of staph epi

Vancomycin (think Van behind plumber)

102

alpha hemolytics?

pneumoniae and viridans

103

Optochin sensitive?

strep pneumo

104

Quellung positive group A

strep pneumo

105

Optochin resistant?

strep viridans

106

Can cause dental carries?

Strep mutans which is part of viridan group

107

Can cause subacute bacterial endocarditis at damaged valves?

Viridans--s. sanguis

108

MOA of sanguis?

Sticks to damaged valves by making glycocalyx

109

Susceptible in sickle cell disease to what bacteria?

Strep pneumo

110

Strep pneumo causes?

MOPS; meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, sinusitis

111

Lancet shaped diploccoi

strep pneumo

112

Rusty sputum

strep pneumo

113

Strep pneumo virulence?

Capsule-- NOT VIRULENT WITHOUT CAPSULE

114

Treatment of strep pneumo?

Cetriaxone and macrolides (axes and birds at knight tournament)

115

Strep pneumo vaccine in adults produces?

IgM response

116

Strep pneumo vaccine in children produces?

IgG response

117

Virulence factor of rheumatic fever? MOA?

M protein (m on bakers hat)-- inhibits phagocytosis and creates molecular mimicry against mitral valve

118

Bacitracin sensitive?

strep pyogenes

119

Detection of recent pyogenes infection?

ASO titer

120

Widspread rash sparing the face; pharyngitis?

Scarlet fever

121

Honey crusted lesions?

strep pyogenes-- impetigo

122

Causes lyses of RBC, gm+ catalase negative

Streptolysin O in strep pyogenes

123

Jones criteria of rheumatic fever?

Joints (first thing); heart (shape); nodules (subcutaneous); erythema marginatum; sydenhams chorea

124

Strep pyogenes causes 3 main things and subtypes

1) pyogenic: pharyngitis; cellulitis; impetigo2) Toxigenic: scarlet fever; toxic shock like syndrome; necrotizing fasciitis3) Immunologic: rheumatic fever; acute glomerulonephritis (cola colored urine)

125

Capsule in strep pyogenes is made of ?

Hyaluronic acid

126

Impetigo in strep pyogenes generally preceeds?

Glomerulonephritis

127

Job of streptokinase?

Activates circulating plasminogen to plasmin to degrade clots

128

Superantigen in strep pyogenes?

exotoxin A

129

Bacitracin resistant?

Strep agalactiae

130

Strep agalactiae produces what?

CAMP factor-- enlarges area of hemolysis formed by s. aureus

131

CAMP factor

strep agalactiae

132

#1 cause of neonatal meningitis?

strep agalactiae

133

when do we screen for group B strep

35 weeks

134

Pregnant mom with strep agalactie-- what do you do?

treat with penicillin

135

Test for strep agalactiae?

hippurate (think of hippo on ground in galactic baby scene)

136

Hippurate positive

strep agalactiae

137

Penicillin G resistant and cause UTIs

Enterococcus

138

Biliary tract infections-- bug?

Enterococcus-- salmonella typhi also causes gallbladder problems I believe

139

grow in bile and NaCl

Enterococcus

140

Growth in bile and not NaCl

Strep bovis

141

Enteroccus faecalus is ?

More common and less dangerous

142

Enterococcus faecium

Less common more dangerous (think of scary guy carrying sign that says No more FEES)

143

Patient presents with biliary tract infection-- what can we grow his bug sample on?

enterococcus-- grow on bile and nacl

144

Treatment of enterococcus resistant to Vanco?

Tigecycline and Linezolid (think TIGer police tape and LINE around parameter)

145

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease?

salmonella

146

Osteomyelitis in teens

Neisseria--sexually active

147

Osteomyelitis in diabetics of IV drugs users

Pseudomonas

148

Osteomyelitis leading to vertebral body problems

Pott disease-- tuberculosis

149

Virulence of C. diptheriae

exotoxin inhibits ADP riBOWsalation of EF-2

150

psuedomembranous pharyngitis

corynbacterium diptheriae

151

Myocarditis and arrhythmias gm+ rod

Corynebacterium diptheria

152

Metachromatic blue and red granules

Corynebacerium diptheriae

153

Eleks test

Corynebacterium diptheriae

154

Test for toxin in corynebacterium diptheriae?

Eleks

155

How is diptheria spread?

through respiratory droplets (think bull with droplets coming out of nose and eyes)

156

Club shaped

corynebacterium (think morracas in bull fight)

157

Chinese character bacteria?

Corynebacterium

158

Teleuride and loughlers medium

Corynbacterium (Tele and Laughing)

159

Spores are composed of what?

dipicolinic acid at the core

160

Clostridia specias are...bacilli?

obligate anaerobic bacilli

161

MOA of tetanus toxin?

Protease that cleaves releasing proteins (SNARES) for neurotransmitters

162

Protease that cleaves snares?

Tetanus or botulinum

163

Tetanus blocks which two NT?

GABA and glycine (inhibitory neurotransmitters)

164

Two inhibitor neurotransmitters? Vaccine binds?

GABA and glycine-- blocked in c. tetani
Vaccine binds toxoid

165

GABA and glycine are released from which cells?

Renshaw (monkey with wrench)

166

Renshaw cells?

C. tetani-- renshaw cells release gaba and glycine which are inhibitory neurotransmitters

167

Risus sardonicus

C. tetani

168

Opisthonos

Overarching of back seen in C tetani

169

C. botulinum inhibits?

ACh release at neuromuscular junction

170

Adult disease in c botulinum is caused by

preformed toxin!

171

Child disease in c botulinum is caused by?

spores

172

2 month old presents with paralysis of arms that started in face, drooping eyes

C. botulinum caused by the spore of honey or canned goods

173

Lymphadenopathy, myocarditis, membranous stuff on pharynx

corynebacteria

174

Produced alpha toxin? whats in alpha toxin

C perfringens-- lecithinase (a phospholipase)

175

Toxin produced by c perfringens? whats in toxin?

Alpha toxin--lecithinase (phospholipase)

176

Myonecrosis and hemolysis?

C perfringens

177

Double zone of hemolysis on blood agar?

C perfringens

178

Person working on a farm develops myonecrosis

C. perfringens--spore found in soil

179

Where is C. perfringens found?

soil

180

C perfringens associated with what type of accident?

motorcycle accidents

181

Two toxins of C. diff and functions of toxins

Toxin A= enterotoxin; binds to brush border (think choc. factory brushing choc on apples (a)) of gutToxin B= Cytotoxin; destroys cytoskeletal structure of enterocytes-->pseudomembranous colitis

182

pseudomembranous colitis

C diff

183

C diff usually secondary to use of which antibiotic?

Clindamycin or ampicillin

184

How do we detect C. diff?

Toxins in stool (NOT BACTERIA)

185

Treatment of C. diff?

Vanco or metronidazole (think Van and metro in chocolate factory)

186

Bacteria with polypeptide capsule? what does it contain?

Anthrax-- contains D glutamate (poly D symbol on viking chest)

187

D glutamate capsule?

Anthrax

188

Black painless eschar?

Anthrax

189

Rods and chains bacteria?

Anthrax

190

Pulmonary hemorrhage, fever-- what else would we see? How does one get this?

Anthrax-- see mediastinitis (think shape of ax with blood on it); transmitted via spores from contaminated wool (wool on armor)

191

Edema factor-->?

Increased cAMP (via Ca2+)--> increase in fluid-->helps bug evade phagocytosis-- bacillas anthracis

192

Lethal factor-->?

Snips off N-terminus of MAPK-- bacillas anthrax

193

Two enzymes of Anthrax?

Edema factor and Lethal factor

194

Treatment of Anthrax?

Fluoroquinolones and doxycyline (think of flower on vikings shoulder along next to tire on boat)

195

Toxin of bacillus cereus?

Cereulide-- preformed toxin

196

watery, nonbloody diarrheam GI pain, reheated food

B. cereius-- cereulide toxin

197

How does listeria move?

via actin rockets (rocket on christmas); tumbling motility (Santa tumbling down fireplace

198

cat+; gm+ rod; beta hemolytic

Listeria

199

Granulomatosis infantiseptica?

Listeria

200

Treat Listeria with?

Ampicillin in infants (AMP with guitar for christmas)

201

Actinomyces?

Gm+ aNaerobe (think soldier with gas mask); filamentous branching rods

202

Nocardia?

gm+ aerobe (bellow

203

Gm+ filamentous branching rods?

actinomyces and nocardia

204

Oral and facial abscesses that form yellow sulfur granules

actinomyces (soldier with facial abscesses)-- drain through sinus tracts

205

Patient presents with oral abscess after dental work?

Actinomyces (yellow sulfur granules-- yellow sand in israel)

206

Treatment of actinomyces?

Penicillin G-- think of israeli solider with pencilin against tree

207

Pulmonary infection in cancer patient. bug is found in soil?

Nocardia (no card game for old men); acid fast (mycolic acids)

208

HIV patient undergoes a bicycling accident and develops indurated lesions on the skin; bug is acid fast; how would we treat him?

Nocardia causes cutaneous infections in immunocompromised after trauma--- TREAT with Sulfonamides (eggs on counter in no card game for old men contains lot of sulfonamides)

209

6 causes of osteomyelitis

1) Staph
2) N. gonorrhaea
3) Salmonella--sickle cell disease
4) Pseudomonas
5) Pasteurella
6) TB

210

Connection between sickle cell and osteomyelitis

Salmonella can cause osteomyelitis in sickle cell patient

211

Budding yeast in macrophages?

Histoplasmosis-- bird or bat droppings-- mississippi ohio river valley

212

Broad based bud

Blastomycosis-- east of mississippi; forms granulomas; pneumonia; ulcerating pimple

213

Patient from North Carolina presents with pneumonia and ulcerating pimple-- fungi?

Blastomycosis

214

HIV patient presents with pulmonary infection, arthralgias and rash. He's from New mexico-- describe the organism?

Coccidioidomycosis-- thick walled spherule with endospores-- southwestern US

215

Thick walled spherules with endospores?

Coccidioidomycosis-- cutaneous lesions; pulmonary infections

216

Budding yeast with central circle

Paracoccidioidomycosis

217

Patient complains of a rash that develops after she comes back from the beach. On KOH prep there is a stringy clumpy appearance-- disease and process?

Malassezia furfur-- degradation of fats produce acids that damage the melanocytes and cause hypopigmentation. The suntan made the hypopigmentation more noticeable

218

Pseudohyphae and budding yeast at 20C

Aspergillas

219

Drug user develops endocarditis on tricuspid valve. Organism exhibits germ tubes when grown at 37C--organism? Treatment?

Candida-- amphotericin B for systemic disease; fluconazole for oral/esophageal.

220

Candida-- random facts

Increased risk of infection with candida in patient with neutropenia; pseudohypae at 20c; germ tubes at 37c

221

Patient who is a farmer says he is deficient in NADPH oxidase and Asthma. He presents with wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath-- describe organism?

Aspergillus-- 45 degrees; not dimorphic; Causes allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; grown on vegitation
May cause aspergillomas in lung cavities
Aspergillus most common in immunocompromised and those with CGD

222

45 degree branching and radiating chains of spores

Aspergillus-- seen in farmers because grows on vegetables; looks like stalk with colorful round thing at the end

223

Aspergillus produce aflatoxin which is associated with?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

224

HIV patient living on the streets presents with meningitis. The organism stains with India ink. What agar would you use? What woudl latex agglutination test detect? What will you see in brain

Cryptococcus-- Sabourauds agar; latex would show polysaccharide capsular antigen; has large capsule

See soap bubble lesions in brain

225

Treatment of cryptococcus?

Flucanozole

226

Patient presents with slow deep breaths, purulent discharge, black eschar on face, and orbital pain. Organism? Treatment?

Mucor and Rhizopus-- branch at 90 degrees.
Most common in ketoacidotic diabetic (the fungi likes ketones and glucose)
Penetrates the cribriform plate and enters brain.
Treat with amphotericin b

227

Fungi that affects paranasal sinuses?

Mucor Rhizopus

228

HIV patient presents with interstitial pneumonia. How is the organism spread?

Pneumocystis jirovecii is spread via inhalation

229

Disc shaped yeast forms on methenamin silver stain of lung?

Pneumocystis jirovecii

230

Treatment of pneumocystis jirovecii

TMP SMX, pentamidine, dapsone

231

Child dives into a bunch of bushes at home to catch a football. He develops reddish pinkish round nodules on his arm. Organism? Describe organism?Treatment

Sporothrix Schenckii-- rose gardners disease; caused by prick from thorn. Grows on vegetation. Dimorphic cigar shaped budding yeast; forms subQ nodules
Treat with itraconazole or potassium iodide (Plant Rose in the pot)

232

Dimorphic, budding yeast, skin rash; Lives on vegetation?

Sporothrix Schenckii

233

Pseudohyphae and budding yeast; causes diaper rash in children?

Candida

234

Differential for bird droppings?

Histoplasmosis (because lives in histiocytes) or cryptococcus

235

Granulomas+ulcerating pimple?

Blastomycosis; broad based budding; Blasto buds broadly

236

Chronic Granulomatous disease+ bug?

Aspergillus

237

Bug associated with hepatocellular carcinoma?

Aspergillus-- produced aflatoxin

238

Patient presents with bloody diarrhea after a camping trip. The patients stool shows mobile bug with ingested RBC--what will histology show? Where did the bug come from? Treatment?

Entamoeba presents with dysentery, liver abscess. Can get it from cysts in the water. Histology will show flask shaped ulcer if submucosal abscess of colon ruptures. Treatment is with metronidazole (forms free radical toxic metabolites-- causes disulfiram reaction sometimes)

239

Serology shows trophozites with RBCs in cytoplasm?

Entameoba-- cysts ingested and differentiate to trophozites in ileum (trophozites have 4 nuclei cysts)

240

Differential for protozoal diarrhea?

Bloody= entamoeba
Watery= cryptosporidium
Fatty= Giardia

241

20yoF presents 2 weeks after a camping trip with foul smelling stools-- what will trophozites look like?

2 nuclei with 4 pairs of moustache flagella

242

2 nuclei, and 4 pairs of moustache flagella?

Giardia

243

HIV patient presents with severe diarrhea that is non bloody. The patient had previously visited a farm. What diagnosis tool should be used for this trophozite?

Acid fast stain

244

Patient with CF, from Iowa-- works on a farm, presents with wheezing and coughing-- bug?

Aspergillus (septa hyphae branches at 45 degrees); one long stick with bunch of tiny little round things at end (fruiting body). Can cause allergic bronchipulmonary aspergillosis in asthma and CF

245

Patient presents with vaginal greenish, watery foul smelling discharge. How is organism spread? What does it look like on wet mount?

Spread through sexual contact. Cannot survive outside environment because it LACKS a CYST. Looks like a tear drop (5 flagella, 1 nucleus)

246

Causes brain abscess in HIV patient?

Toxoplasmosis-- seen as ring enhancing lesions-- treat with sulfadiazine ad pyrimethamine

247

Neonate presents with retinal inflammation, increased ICP, and intracranial calcifications. Where did mother get bug from? Treatment? What does it look like on histology?

Cysts in meat or cats; mother is asymptomatic
Sulfadiazine+pyrimethamine
Crescent shaped trophozites

248

Patient presents with dilated cardiomyopathy, megaesophagus after visiting south america? Transmission? Treatment?

Trypnasoma cruzi; Chagas' disease: megacolon and romanas sign can be seen also (causes achalasia).

Transmitted via the reduviid bug (kissing bug), painless bite much like a kiss

Treat with nifurtimox

249

Treatment of trypnasoma cruzi?

Nifurtimox

250

Trypnasoma transmited via?

Reduviid bug

251

Pt from tropical country presents with weight loss and fever. PE revelas massive hepatosplenomegaly with edema and hyperpigmented skin patches. CBC shows thrombocytopenia, and anemia-- bug? Transmission? Histology? Treatment?

Leishmania (kalazar-- means black illness for hyperpigmented skin lesions): spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia

Transmitted via sandfly
See macrophages containing amastigotes

Treat with sodium stibogluconate

252

Macrophages with amastigotes?

Lesihmania; transmitted via sandfly

253

Treatment of leishmania?

sodium stibogluconate

254

Pt from Africa presents with chronic fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes, and recurrent fevers? Transmission? Treatment?

Trypansoma brucei: african sleeping sickness due to antigenic variation which allows protozoa to evade immune response
Transmitted via tsetse fly; painful bite

Treated with suramin for blood borne disease
Melarsoprol for CNS penetration

255

Dormant form of malaria?

P. vivax/ovale-- treatwith chloroquine which blocks heme polymerase-- use mefloquine if resistant

256

Worst form of malaria?

Falciparum ("Fal"ing fast")

257

Test patients for blank before giving malarial meds?

G6PD deficiency

258

How is Listeria distinguished from beta hemolytic strep?

Listeria is catalase+

259

These bacteria resemble fungi due to branching filaments?

Actinomyces and nocardia

260

Sore throat and acute hemorrhagic cystitis?

Adenovirus (no envelope); conjunctivitis; and pneumonia as well

261

Pink eye?

Adenovirus ("Adam NO! farting on your brother, you'll give him pink eye")

262

causes aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease? What is special about this DNA virus?

Parvovirus (no envelope)-- SINGLE STRANDED
RBC APLASIA AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN ADULTS

263

JC virus? BK?

Polyomavirus-- JC: Junky cerebrum
BK: bad kidney

264

Flesh colored dome lesions with central dimple?

Poxvirus

265

Most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in us?

Temporal lobe encephalitis due to HSV 1

266

Owl eye inclusion bodies on histology?

CeeMV

267

1yo presents after having a seizure. The child has had a fever for the past several days. She now has a diffuse macular rash

HHV6 Roseola

268

Pico viruses?

PERCH
Polio; Echo; Rhino; Coxsackie; HAV

269

MCC of viral gastroenteritist in children?

Rota virus

270

MCC of viral gastroenteritis in adults?

Norovirus-- part of calicivirus family (people in California shit a lot)

271

Influenza virus is part of what family?

Orthomyxovirus

272

Paramyxoviruses? 3

Parainfluenza, RSV, Measles, Mumps
PaRaMyxo

273

High fever, black vomitus, and jaundice?

Yellow fever causes black vomit (Flavivirus)

274

Describe rotavirus?

dsRNA; segmented-->villous destruction with atrophy leads to dec absorption of Na and loss of K+

275

Rash that starts at the head and moves down; postauricular adenopathy; deafness

Rubella virus-- congenital rubella looks like blueberry muffin

276

F protein?

Paramyxovirus-- fusion protein causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multinucleated cells

277

Palivizumab?

Prevents pneumonia caused by RSV infection in premature infants

278

Koplick spots?

Measles-- paraMyxo

279

Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis?

Measles

280

Rubella rash vs measles rash?

Rubella=truncal
Measles= involves hands and feet

281

Severe pneumonia; fever; GI and CNS symptoms--bug? how do we detect?

Legionella; detect clinically by antigen in urine; silver stain; grows on charcoal extract with iron and cystein

282

pericardial knock

constric. pericarditis

283

bipolar staining

yersenia

284

how is yersenia secreted?

via type III secretion system

285

Swollen tender lymph nodes on skin

bubbos- yersenia

286

seafood contaminated by?

vibrio subtypes

287

Pt has difficulty urinating; swarming motility when plated?

Proteus-- struvite stones-- fishy odor

288

anal pruritus

enterobius vermicularis treat with mybuttazole

289

Intestinal infection leading to bilirubin stones-- fecal oral

ascaris lumbricoides

290

Larvae in soil penetrate the skin

Strongyloides; intestinal infection, vomiting diarrhea anemia-- treat with IVermectin (ivan is a STRONG man)

291

Black flies, black skin nodules, black sight

Onchorcer volvulus-- black volvo drove into river000 treat with "iver"mectin for river

292

brain cysts; seizures; intestinal infection; from undercooked pork

Taenia solium-- treat with praziquantel

293

b12 deficiency; tape worm; trasmitted from fresh water fish

Diphyllobothrium laktum-- praziquantel

294

liver and spleen granulomas; fibrosis and inflammation; squamous cell carcinoma of bladder

schistosoma-- treat with praziquantel

295

Biliary tract inflammation-->pigmented gallstones-- cuased by undercooked fish

Clonorchis sinensis associated with cholangiocarcinoma

296

undercooked crab meat; lung inflammation and HEMOPTYSIS

paragonimus westermani

297

liver cysts parasite

Echinococcus

298

parasite microcytic anemia

necator and ancylostoma

299

Catalase +

PLACESS pseudomonas, listeria, aspergillus, candida, ecoli, staph serratia

300

epiglottitis, meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia

HaEMOPhilus-- caused by capsular type B

301

Treat haemophilus with?

cephtriaxon; -- vaccine contains b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to diptheria toxoid

302

Carbol fuschin stain

TB

303

Cord factor

Tb

304

freshwater lakes-- rapidly fatal meningioencepahlitis

naegleria fowleri

305

All DNA are linear except

papilloma, polyoma and hepadna

306

All RNA are SS except

REO

307

Naked nucleic acids of negative strands

are not infectious

308

All viruses are haploid except

retrovirus

309

DNA viruses replicate in?
RNA viruses replicate in?

DNA= nucleus except pox (has own DNA dependent RNA polymerase)

RNA= cytoplasm except influenza and retro

310

Segmented viruses

BOAR
Bunya, ortho, arena, reo

311

H. influenza

gram negative coccobacillus that needs NAD and CoA