Flashcards in Micro Cards Deck (311):
Brucella; listeria; campylobacter
Dairy products and dogs? treat with?
Yersenia-- aminoglycosides with tetracycline; bipolar staining
Puppies and bloody diarrhea?
Cat scratch disease? Treatment?
Bartonella; macrolides and doxycycline
Casseating granulomas and painful ulcers?
Francisella-- from rabbits (think of radishes underground in video)
Aerosols of cattle; no rash; fever; pneumonia
Q fever; Coxiella
Osteomyelitis and cellulitis?
Gray vaginal discharge
Gray discharge-- pH?
Treatment of gray discharge?
+ whiff test plus clue cells?
Patchy infiltrates on X ray but patient not in bad shape?
IgM cold agglutinins?
Bacteria with no cell wall+ eatons agar?
Treatment of bacteria that causes patchy infiltrates on xray in patient with fever, headache, non productive cough?
Mycoplasma pneumonia required macrolides or fluoroquinolones
Only bacteria with cholesterol in cell membrane?
Rash that starts at wrist treatment?
Rickettsia rickettsii-- RMSF-- doxycycline (Rickets tires)
Weil felix agglutination test- this bacteria requires what cofactors
CoA(ch) and NAD+ (name of drink)
Causes vasculitis-- treatment?
Rocky mountain spotted fever-- doxycycline
Rash that starts on wrist-- spread via?
Spread by louse?
Rickettsia prowazekii (throwing around louse football)
Rash starts out centrally and spread out sparing face, palms and soles- requires what substances to proliferate?
R. prowazekii-- NAD+ (name of drink) and CoA (CH)
Palm sole rash Ddx: 3?
CARS: Coxsackie a infection; RMSF; Syphilis-- drive CARS using palms and soles
Myalgias, pneumonia, centrally located rash-- requires?
Prowazekii; NAD+ and CoA
Berry like inclusions in cytoplasm?
Ehrlichiosis (monocytes with morula)
Monocytes with morula
Ehrlichiosis (berry like inclusions)
Histology of Ehrlichiosis?
Monocytes with morula
Histology of Anaplasmosis?
Granulocytes with morula in cytoplasm
Granulocytes with morula in cytoplasm?
No arthropod vector, no rash, fever, hepatitis
Coxiella (Curly Q)-- think of cow with liver painted on
Cannot make own ATP; STD?
Replicate in reticulate body; and infect via elementary body
Chlamydia's enfectious form
Joint pain; sexually active; conjunctivitis-- treatment?
Chlaymydia-- treat with macrolide (favored due to one time dose) or doxycycline (ceftriaxone to cover gonorrhaea)
Leading cause of blindness world wide?
Chlamydia A-C (blind pirate)
Chlamydia is missing what in cell wall?
Muramic acid-- so treat with macrolide
Cytoplasmic inclusion seen on giemsa stain? Treatment?
Chlamydia-- macrolides or doxy
lacks Muramic acid in cell wall-- blindness?
Short sudden bursts of coughing, watery discharge from vagina-- ?
Chlamydia D-K-- staccato cough
Enlarged lymph nodes in groin area-- start off painless and become painful?
Lymphogranuloma venereum L1-L3
Variable gram stain?
Gardnerella--treat with KOH prep
Stages 1,2,3 of lyme disease?
1) erythema chronicum migrans (bulls eye)-- flu like sx2) Cardiac block with bells palsy3) Musculoskeletal (arthritis) and neurologic (encephalitis and polyneuropathy)
Host of child tick lyme disease?
Host of adult tick in Lyme disease?
Central clearing rash-- tick? what else uses this tick?
Ixode; Babesia is also carried by Ixode tick
AV nodal block after camping trip a few months ago--? Treatment?
Doxy (Robbin hood on cycle shooting bow)Lyme disease
Stain for lyme disease?
Wright stain (Sir Wright) and Giemsa
Reddening of eyes but no exudate?-- found in?
Leptospira interrogans-- water contaminated with animal urine (Think surfer)
Jaundice, fever, question mark shaped bacteria?
Leptospira looks like on histology?
Question mark-- duh it's a spirochete
Bug that can cause kidney dysfunction; found in urine contaminated water?
Jaundice, azotemia, fever, hemorrhage, and anemia?
Leptospira-- Weil's disease (think Whale) (surfer, with kidney, RBCs)
icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis-- severe form of jaundice and azotemia associated with leptospira infection
Painless genital ulcer? screen with? confirm with?
Syphilis; screen with VDRL; confirm with FTA-ABS
Immune response of syphilis?
Th1 even though Treponema is extracellular
Hallmark of tertiary syph?
Gummas (chronic granulomas)
Tabes dorsalis causes neuro issues in wha tpart of spinal cord?
Tertiary syphilis may have what cardiac affect?
Aortitis dt vaso vasorum destruction
Tertiary syph-- degeneration of weight bearing joints
Positive Romberg test + funny acting pupils
Rash in syphilis is?
Palms and soles (also seen in coxsackie A, rickettsia)-- drive CARS with palms and soles
Anterior convexing tibia in newborn?
Congential syph-- saber shins
Teeth in congenital syph (2)?
mulberry molars and hutchinson teeth
Placental transmission of syph usually occurs when?
Tree barking aorta?
Tertiary syphilis-- vaso vasorum destruction leads to aortitis
Causes false positive in VDRL syph test?
Viruses (mono, hep); Drugs; Rheumatic fever; Lupus, leprosy
Another screening test for syph other than VDRL?
Cause of reaction that begins after treatment of syphilis?
Killed bacteria releases pyrogens-- Jarisch Herxheimer reaction
Maculopapular rash (5)
Measles, Rubella, Scarlet fever, Syphilis, Parvo B19
Rash caused by Rubella?
Rash caused by Scarlet fever?
Rash caused by Syphilis?
Cranial nerve defect in congenital syph?
Baby born with weird teeth and deaf?
Gram positive abscess formation?
Protein A virulence factor?
Virulence factor of Staph?
Mechanism of protein A
binds Fc-IgG inhibiting complement fixation and phagocytosis--- STAPH
Treatment of resistant strains of gm+ organism with protein A virulence factor?
Mech of TSST superantigen?
binds MHCII and TCR resulting in polyclonal t cell activation (Staph)
Widespread formation of fluid filled blisters with formation of blisters within minutes of rubbing skin?
Staph-- caused by exfoliative toxin (scalded skin)
Bunch of people at picnic get sick from potato salad-- toxin?
Fever, vomiting, desquamating rash, dec blood pressure?
TSST superantigen found in Staph- binds mhcII and TCR resulting in polyclonal t cell activation
Pneumonia with patchy infiltrates
M. pneumonia or Staph
staph is resistant to ?
Beta lactams because of altered penicillin binding protein
Beta hemolytic coagaulase and catalase+?
Causes acute bacterial endocarditis in IV drug users?
Staph aureus food poisoning is caused by ingestion of?
Common cause of osteomyelitis; gm+
Post viral bacterial pneumonia?
Bug that infects prosthetic devices-- MOA?
Produces adherent biofilms
Staph saprophyticus can cause?
UTIs in sexually active women
Treatment of staph epi
Vancomycin (think Van behind plumber)
pneumoniae and viridans
Quellung positive group A
Can cause dental carries?
Strep mutans which is part of viridan group
Can cause subacute bacterial endocarditis at damaged valves?
MOA of sanguis?
Sticks to damaged valves by making glycocalyx
Susceptible in sickle cell disease to what bacteria?
Strep pneumo causes?
MOPS; meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, sinusitis
Lancet shaped diploccoi
Strep pneumo virulence?
Capsule-- NOT VIRULENT WITHOUT CAPSULE
Treatment of strep pneumo?
Cetriaxone and macrolides (axes and birds at knight tournament)
Strep pneumo vaccine in adults produces?
Strep pneumo vaccine in children produces?
Virulence factor of rheumatic fever? MOA?
M protein (m on bakers hat)-- inhibits phagocytosis and creates molecular mimicry against mitral valve
Detection of recent pyogenes infection?
Widspread rash sparing the face; pharyngitis?
Honey crusted lesions?
strep pyogenes-- impetigo
Causes lyses of RBC, gm+ catalase negative
Streptolysin O in strep pyogenes
Jones criteria of rheumatic fever?
Joints (first thing); heart (shape); nodules (subcutaneous); erythema marginatum; sydenhams chorea
Strep pyogenes causes 3 main things and subtypes
1) pyogenic: pharyngitis; cellulitis; impetigo2) Toxigenic: scarlet fever; toxic shock like syndrome; necrotizing fasciitis3) Immunologic: rheumatic fever; acute glomerulonephritis (cola colored urine)
Capsule in strep pyogenes is made of ?
Impetigo in strep pyogenes generally preceeds?
Job of streptokinase?
Activates circulating plasminogen to plasmin to degrade clots
Superantigen in strep pyogenes?
Strep agalactiae produces what?
CAMP factor-- enlarges area of hemolysis formed by s. aureus
#1 cause of neonatal meningitis?
when do we screen for group B strep
Pregnant mom with strep agalactie-- what do you do?
treat with penicillin
Test for strep agalactiae?
hippurate (think of hippo on ground in galactic baby scene)
Penicillin G resistant and cause UTIs
Biliary tract infections-- bug?
Enterococcus-- salmonella typhi also causes gallbladder problems I believe
grow in bile and NaCl
Growth in bile and not NaCl
Enteroccus faecalus is ?
More common and less dangerous
Less common more dangerous (think of scary guy carrying sign that says No more FEES)
Patient presents with biliary tract infection-- what can we grow his bug sample on?
enterococcus-- grow on bile and nacl
Treatment of enterococcus resistant to Vanco?
Tigecycline and Linezolid (think TIGer police tape and LINE around parameter)
Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease?
Osteomyelitis in teens
Osteomyelitis in diabetics of IV drugs users
Osteomyelitis leading to vertebral body problems
Pott disease-- tuberculosis
Virulence of C. diptheriae
exotoxin inhibits ADP riBOWsalation of EF-2
Myocarditis and arrhythmias gm+ rod
Metachromatic blue and red granules
Test for toxin in corynebacterium diptheriae?
How is diptheria spread?
through respiratory droplets (think bull with droplets coming out of nose and eyes)
corynebacterium (think morracas in bull fight)
Chinese character bacteria?
Teleuride and loughlers medium
Corynbacterium (Tele and Laughing)
Spores are composed of what?
dipicolinic acid at the core
Clostridia specias are...bacilli?
obligate anaerobic bacilli
MOA of tetanus toxin?
Protease that cleaves releasing proteins (SNARES) for neurotransmitters
Protease that cleaves snares?
Tetanus or botulinum
Tetanus blocks which two NT?
GABA and glycine (inhibitory neurotransmitters)
Two inhibitor neurotransmitters? Vaccine binds?
GABA and glycine-- blocked in c. tetani
Vaccine binds toxoid
GABA and glycine are released from which cells?
Renshaw (monkey with wrench)
C. tetani-- renshaw cells release gaba and glycine which are inhibitory neurotransmitters
Overarching of back seen in C tetani
C. botulinum inhibits?
ACh release at neuromuscular junction
Adult disease in c botulinum is caused by
Child disease in c botulinum is caused by?
2 month old presents with paralysis of arms that started in face, drooping eyes
C. botulinum caused by the spore of honey or canned goods
Lymphadenopathy, myocarditis, membranous stuff on pharynx
Produced alpha toxin? whats in alpha toxin
C perfringens-- lecithinase (a phospholipase)
Toxin produced by c perfringens? whats in toxin?
Alpha toxin--lecithinase (phospholipase)
Myonecrosis and hemolysis?
Double zone of hemolysis on blood agar?
Person working on a farm develops myonecrosis
C. perfringens--spore found in soil
Where is C. perfringens found?
C perfringens associated with what type of accident?
Two toxins of C. diff and functions of toxins
Toxin A= enterotoxin; binds to brush border (think choc. factory brushing choc on apples (a)) of gutToxin B= Cytotoxin; destroys cytoskeletal structure of enterocytes-->pseudomembranous colitis
C diff usually secondary to use of which antibiotic?
Clindamycin or ampicillin
How do we detect C. diff?
Toxins in stool (NOT BACTERIA)
Treatment of C. diff?
Vanco or metronidazole (think Van and metro in chocolate factory)
Bacteria with polypeptide capsule? what does it contain?
Anthrax-- contains D glutamate (poly D symbol on viking chest)
D glutamate capsule?
Black painless eschar?
Rods and chains bacteria?
Pulmonary hemorrhage, fever-- what else would we see? How does one get this?
Anthrax-- see mediastinitis (think shape of ax with blood on it); transmitted via spores from contaminated wool (wool on armor)
Increased cAMP (via Ca2+)--> increase in fluid-->helps bug evade phagocytosis-- bacillas anthracis
Snips off N-terminus of MAPK-- bacillas anthrax
Two enzymes of Anthrax?
Edema factor and Lethal factor
Treatment of Anthrax?
Fluoroquinolones and doxycyline (think of flower on vikings shoulder along next to tire on boat)
Toxin of bacillus cereus?
Cereulide-- preformed toxin
watery, nonbloody diarrheam GI pain, reheated food
B. cereius-- cereulide toxin
How does listeria move?
via actin rockets (rocket on christmas); tumbling motility (Santa tumbling down fireplace
cat+; gm+ rod; beta hemolytic
Treat Listeria with?
Ampicillin in infants (AMP with guitar for christmas)
Gm+ aNaerobe (think soldier with gas mask); filamentous branching rods
gm+ aerobe (bellow
Gm+ filamentous branching rods?
actinomyces and nocardia
Oral and facial abscesses that form yellow sulfur granules
actinomyces (soldier with facial abscesses)-- drain through sinus tracts
Patient presents with oral abscess after dental work?
Actinomyces (yellow sulfur granules-- yellow sand in israel)
Treatment of actinomyces?
Penicillin G-- think of israeli solider with pencilin against tree
Pulmonary infection in cancer patient. bug is found in soil?
Nocardia (no card game for old men); acid fast (mycolic acids)
HIV patient undergoes a bicycling accident and develops indurated lesions on the skin; bug is acid fast; how would we treat him?
Nocardia causes cutaneous infections in immunocompromised after trauma--- TREAT with Sulfonamides (eggs on counter in no card game for old men contains lot of sulfonamides)
6 causes of osteomyelitis
2) N. gonorrhaea
3) Salmonella--sickle cell disease
Connection between sickle cell and osteomyelitis
Salmonella can cause osteomyelitis in sickle cell patient
Budding yeast in macrophages?
Histoplasmosis-- bird or bat droppings-- mississippi ohio river valley
Broad based bud
Blastomycosis-- east of mississippi; forms granulomas; pneumonia; ulcerating pimple
Patient from North Carolina presents with pneumonia and ulcerating pimple-- fungi?
HIV patient presents with pulmonary infection, arthralgias and rash. He's from New mexico-- describe the organism?
Coccidioidomycosis-- thick walled spherule with endospores-- southwestern US
Thick walled spherules with endospores?
Coccidioidomycosis-- cutaneous lesions; pulmonary infections
Budding yeast with central circle
Patient complains of a rash that develops after she comes back from the beach. On KOH prep there is a stringy clumpy appearance-- disease and process?
Malassezia furfur-- degradation of fats produce acids that damage the melanocytes and cause hypopigmentation. The suntan made the hypopigmentation more noticeable
Pseudohyphae and budding yeast at 20C
Drug user develops endocarditis on tricuspid valve. Organism exhibits germ tubes when grown at 37C--organism? Treatment?
Candida-- amphotericin B for systemic disease; fluconazole for oral/esophageal.
Candida-- random facts
Increased risk of infection with candida in patient with neutropenia; pseudohypae at 20c; germ tubes at 37c
Patient who is a farmer says he is deficient in NADPH oxidase and Asthma. He presents with wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath-- describe organism?
Aspergillus-- 45 degrees; not dimorphic; Causes allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; grown on vegitation
May cause aspergillomas in lung cavities
Aspergillus most common in immunocompromised and those with CGD
45 degree branching and radiating chains of spores
Aspergillus-- seen in farmers because grows on vegetables; looks like stalk with colorful round thing at the end
Aspergillus produce aflatoxin which is associated with?
HIV patient living on the streets presents with meningitis. The organism stains with India ink. What agar would you use? What woudl latex agglutination test detect? What will you see in brain
Cryptococcus-- Sabourauds agar; latex would show polysaccharide capsular antigen; has large capsule
See soap bubble lesions in brain
Treatment of cryptococcus?
Patient presents with slow deep breaths, purulent discharge, black eschar on face, and orbital pain. Organism? Treatment?
Mucor and Rhizopus-- branch at 90 degrees.
Most common in ketoacidotic diabetic (the fungi likes ketones and glucose)
Penetrates the cribriform plate and enters brain.
Treat with amphotericin b
Fungi that affects paranasal sinuses?
HIV patient presents with interstitial pneumonia. How is the organism spread?
Pneumocystis jirovecii is spread via inhalation
Disc shaped yeast forms on methenamin silver stain of lung?
Treatment of pneumocystis jirovecii
TMP SMX, pentamidine, dapsone
Child dives into a bunch of bushes at home to catch a football. He develops reddish pinkish round nodules on his arm. Organism? Describe organism?Treatment
Sporothrix Schenckii-- rose gardners disease; caused by prick from thorn. Grows on vegetation. Dimorphic cigar shaped budding yeast; forms subQ nodules
Treat with itraconazole or potassium iodide (Plant Rose in the pot)
Dimorphic, budding yeast, skin rash; Lives on vegetation?
Pseudohyphae and budding yeast; causes diaper rash in children?
Differential for bird droppings?
Histoplasmosis (because lives in histiocytes) or cryptococcus
Blastomycosis; broad based budding; Blasto buds broadly
Chronic Granulomatous disease+ bug?
Bug associated with hepatocellular carcinoma?
Aspergillus-- produced aflatoxin
Patient presents with bloody diarrhea after a camping trip. The patients stool shows mobile bug with ingested RBC--what will histology show? Where did the bug come from? Treatment?
Entamoeba presents with dysentery, liver abscess. Can get it from cysts in the water. Histology will show flask shaped ulcer if submucosal abscess of colon ruptures. Treatment is with metronidazole (forms free radical toxic metabolites-- causes disulfiram reaction sometimes)
Serology shows trophozites with RBCs in cytoplasm?
Entameoba-- cysts ingested and differentiate to trophozites in ileum (trophozites have 4 nuclei cysts)
Differential for protozoal diarrhea?
20yoF presents 2 weeks after a camping trip with foul smelling stools-- what will trophozites look like?
2 nuclei with 4 pairs of moustache flagella
2 nuclei, and 4 pairs of moustache flagella?
HIV patient presents with severe diarrhea that is non bloody. The patient had previously visited a farm. What diagnosis tool should be used for this trophozite?
Acid fast stain
Patient with CF, from Iowa-- works on a farm, presents with wheezing and coughing-- bug?
Aspergillus (septa hyphae branches at 45 degrees); one long stick with bunch of tiny little round things at end (fruiting body). Can cause allergic bronchipulmonary aspergillosis in asthma and CF
Patient presents with vaginal greenish, watery foul smelling discharge. How is organism spread? What does it look like on wet mount?
Spread through sexual contact. Cannot survive outside environment because it LACKS a CYST. Looks like a tear drop (5 flagella, 1 nucleus)
Causes brain abscess in HIV patient?
Toxoplasmosis-- seen as ring enhancing lesions-- treat with sulfadiazine ad pyrimethamine
Neonate presents with retinal inflammation, increased ICP, and intracranial calcifications. Where did mother get bug from? Treatment? What does it look like on histology?
Cysts in meat or cats; mother is asymptomatic
Crescent shaped trophozites
Patient presents with dilated cardiomyopathy, megaesophagus after visiting south america? Transmission? Treatment?
Trypnasoma cruzi; Chagas' disease: megacolon and romanas sign can be seen also (causes achalasia).
Transmitted via the reduviid bug (kissing bug), painless bite much like a kiss
Treat with nifurtimox
Treatment of trypnasoma cruzi?
Trypnasoma transmited via?
Pt from tropical country presents with weight loss and fever. PE revelas massive hepatosplenomegaly with edema and hyperpigmented skin patches. CBC shows thrombocytopenia, and anemia-- bug? Transmission? Histology? Treatment?
Leishmania (kalazar-- means black illness for hyperpigmented skin lesions): spiking fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia
Transmitted via sandfly
See macrophages containing amastigotes
Treat with sodium stibogluconate
Macrophages with amastigotes?
Lesihmania; transmitted via sandfly
Treatment of leishmania?
Pt from Africa presents with chronic fatigue, enlarged lymph nodes, and recurrent fevers? Transmission? Treatment?
Trypansoma brucei: african sleeping sickness due to antigenic variation which allows protozoa to evade immune response
Transmitted via tsetse fly; painful bite
Treated with suramin for blood borne disease
Melarsoprol for CNS penetration
Dormant form of malaria?
P. vivax/ovale-- treatwith chloroquine which blocks heme polymerase-- use mefloquine if resistant
Worst form of malaria?
Falciparum ("Fal"ing fast")
Test patients for blank before giving malarial meds?
How is Listeria distinguished from beta hemolytic strep?
Listeria is catalase+
These bacteria resemble fungi due to branching filaments?
Actinomyces and nocardia
Sore throat and acute hemorrhagic cystitis?
Adenovirus (no envelope); conjunctivitis; and pneumonia as well
Adenovirus ("Adam NO! farting on your brother, you'll give him pink eye")
causes aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease? What is special about this DNA virus?
Parvovirus (no envelope)-- SINGLE STRANDED
RBC APLASIA AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN ADULTS
JC virus? BK?
Polyomavirus-- JC: Junky cerebrum
BK: bad kidney
Flesh colored dome lesions with central dimple?
Most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in us?
Temporal lobe encephalitis due to HSV 1
Owl eye inclusion bodies on histology?
1yo presents after having a seizure. The child has had a fever for the past several days. She now has a diffuse macular rash
Polio; Echo; Rhino; Coxsackie; HAV
MCC of viral gastroenteritist in children?
MCC of viral gastroenteritis in adults?
Norovirus-- part of calicivirus family (people in California shit a lot)
Influenza virus is part of what family?
Parainfluenza, RSV, Measles, Mumps
High fever, black vomitus, and jaundice?
Yellow fever causes black vomit (Flavivirus)
dsRNA; segmented-->villous destruction with atrophy leads to dec absorption of Na and loss of K+
Rash that starts at the head and moves down; postauricular adenopathy; deafness
Rubella virus-- congenital rubella looks like blueberry muffin
Paramyxovirus-- fusion protein causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multinucleated cells
Prevents pneumonia caused by RSV infection in premature infants
Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis?
Rubella rash vs measles rash?
Measles= involves hands and feet
Severe pneumonia; fever; GI and CNS symptoms--bug? how do we detect?
Legionella; detect clinically by antigen in urine; silver stain; grows on charcoal extract with iron and cystein
how is yersenia secreted?
via type III secretion system
Swollen tender lymph nodes on skin
seafood contaminated by?
Pt has difficulty urinating; swarming motility when plated?
Proteus-- struvite stones-- fishy odor
enterobius vermicularis treat with mybuttazole
Intestinal infection leading to bilirubin stones-- fecal oral
Larvae in soil penetrate the skin
Strongyloides; intestinal infection, vomiting diarrhea anemia-- treat with IVermectin (ivan is a STRONG man)
Black flies, black skin nodules, black sight
Onchorcer volvulus-- black volvo drove into river000 treat with "iver"mectin for river
brain cysts; seizures; intestinal infection; from undercooked pork
Taenia solium-- treat with praziquantel
b12 deficiency; tape worm; trasmitted from fresh water fish
Diphyllobothrium laktum-- praziquantel
liver and spleen granulomas; fibrosis and inflammation; squamous cell carcinoma of bladder
schistosoma-- treat with praziquantel
Biliary tract inflammation-->pigmented gallstones-- cuased by undercooked fish
Clonorchis sinensis associated with cholangiocarcinoma
undercooked crab meat; lung inflammation and HEMOPTYSIS
liver cysts parasite
parasite microcytic anemia
necator and ancylostoma
PLACESS pseudomonas, listeria, aspergillus, candida, ecoli, staph serratia
epiglottitis, meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia
HaEMOPhilus-- caused by capsular type B
Treat haemophilus with?
cephtriaxon; -- vaccine contains b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to diptheria toxoid
Carbol fuschin stain
freshwater lakes-- rapidly fatal meningioencepahlitis
All DNA are linear except
papilloma, polyoma and hepadna
All RNA are SS except
Naked nucleic acids of negative strands
are not infectious
All viruses are haploid except
DNA viruses replicate in?
RNA viruses replicate in?
DNA= nucleus except pox (has own DNA dependent RNA polymerase)
RNA= cytoplasm except influenza and retro
Bunya, ortho, arena, reo