Flashcards in Micro: LRT infection Deck (32):
Criteria for Chronic Bronchitis.
Cough with excessive mucous production for at least 3 months within a 2 year period.
How can you exclude Acute bronchitis from pneumonia on H and P?
Low grade fever with bronchitis
(or no fever at all)
3 routes of entry into the lungs for bacteria to cause pneumonia.
1. Aspiration of Normal Flora
2. Hematogenous Spread from another site
3. Inhalation of Aerosols
#1 cause of typical pneumonia.
Major virulence factor of Strep pneumo.
(also uses IgA protease, pneumolysin, adhesins)
What kind of operation predisposes patients to acquire a Strep pneumo infection?
Best Tx for Strep pneumo infection.
Ampicillin or Erythromycin
Virulence Factor for Klebsiella p.
What groups are at risk for Klebsiella infection leading to pneumonia?
IC, hospitalized, ventilator
Tx for Klebsiella
What is Klebsiella's form of antibiotic resistance?
Carbapenamase (only present in some strains)
-this enzyme hydrolyzes carbapenam, a large component of the beta lactam ring
Plate used to diagnose Haemophilus influenza.
-Factor V (NAD)
-Factor X (hemin: iron-containing porin)
Salmon Pink sputum.
Staph aureus pneumonia
Presentation of Atypical pneumonia
-fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, diarrhea
(organisms don't gram stain well or at all)
Cause of walking pneumonia.
Virulence factors of Mycoplasma.
Adhesins: will bind cilia and destroy them
Rapid test to detect Mycoplasma infection.
(There is actually a disease called Cold Agglutinin Disease, it's autoimmune and patients make IgM autoantibodies against RBCs that agglutinate at lower temperatures. The Mycoplasma antigens have epitomes very similar to RBCs and the body makes IgMs that will recognize Mycoplasma and RBCs simulating the actual disease) just FYI
Describe the pathogenesis of Chlamydophila pneumonia.
Obligate Intracellular with 2 stages
1. Elementary body: the infectious form that enters host cells
2. Reticulate Body: metabolically active form that replicates within the host cell
The reticulate body must convert back to an elementary body before it lyses the cells and searches for other host cells
Tx for mycoplasma.
Macrolides or Doxycycline
Tx for Chlamydophila p.
Macrolides or Doxycycline
Pneumonia from handling birds.
Source of Legionella pneumophila.
Water cooling towers, air conditioners
-intracellular and resides inside amoebas
(once humans are infected it invades alveolar macrophages)
Lab plate used to diagnose Legionella
Buffered Charcoal Yeast agar
-requires iron and cysteine
Most common population to acquire a Pseudomonas infection in the lungs.
What should you suspect if a patient presents coughing up lots of smelly sputum?
-Bacteroides sp. or Fusobacterium sp.
Tx for anaerobe lung infection.
Unique characteristic of Bacillus anthracis and its major virulence factor.
Polyglutamic Acid Capsule
VF: anthrax toxin
Bipolar or safety pin staining.
Yersinia pestis (plague)
Tx for Y. pestis
and Isolate them
Unpasteurized milk from cattle, goats, or sheep
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
-causes ulceroglandular disease