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Flashcards in Micro: LRT infection Deck (32):
1

Criteria for Chronic Bronchitis.

Cough with excessive mucous production for at least 3 months within a 2 year period.

2

How can you exclude Acute bronchitis from pneumonia on H and P?

Low grade fever with bronchitis
(or no fever at all)

3

3 routes of entry into the lungs for bacteria to cause pneumonia.

1. Aspiration of Normal Flora
2. Hematogenous Spread from another site
3. Inhalation of Aerosols

4

#1 cause of typical pneumonia.

Strep pneumo

5

Major virulence factor of Strep pneumo.

Capsule
(also uses IgA protease, pneumolysin, adhesins)

6

What kind of operation predisposes patients to acquire a Strep pneumo infection?

Splenectomy

7

Best Tx for Strep pneumo infection.

Ampicillin or Erythromycin

8

Virulence Factor for Klebsiella p.

Capsule

9

What groups are at risk for Klebsiella infection leading to pneumonia?

Alcoholics
IC, hospitalized, ventilator

10

Tx for Klebsiella

Gentamicin, Cipro

11

What is Klebsiella's form of antibiotic resistance?

Carbapenamase (only present in some strains)
-this enzyme hydrolyzes carbapenam, a large component of the beta lactam ring

12

Plate used to diagnose Haemophilus influenza.

Chocolate agar
-Factor V (NAD)
-Factor X (hemin: iron-containing porin)

13

Salmon Pink sputum.

Staph aureus pneumonia

14

Presentation of Atypical pneumonia

Non-productive cough

-fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, diarrhea
(organisms don't gram stain well or at all)

15

Cause of walking pneumonia.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

16

Virulence factors of Mycoplasma.

Capsule
Adhesins: will bind cilia and destroy them

17

Rapid test to detect Mycoplasma infection.

Cold Agglutinins
(There is actually a disease called Cold Agglutinin Disease, it's autoimmune and patients make IgM autoantibodies against RBCs that agglutinate at lower temperatures. The Mycoplasma antigens have epitomes very similar to RBCs and the body makes IgMs that will recognize Mycoplasma and RBCs simulating the actual disease) just FYI

18

Describe the pathogenesis of Chlamydophila pneumonia.

Obligate Intracellular with 2 stages
1. Elementary body: the infectious form that enters host cells

2. Reticulate Body: metabolically active form that replicates within the host cell

The reticulate body must convert back to an elementary body before it lyses the cells and searches for other host cells

19

Tx for mycoplasma.

Macrolides or Doxycycline

20

Tx for Chlamydophila p.

Macrolides or Doxycycline

21

Pneumonia from handling birds.

Chlamydophila psittaci

22

Source of Legionella pneumophila.

Water cooling towers, air conditioners
-intracellular and resides inside amoebas
(once humans are infected it invades alveolar macrophages)

23

Lab plate used to diagnose Legionella

Buffered Charcoal Yeast agar
-requires iron and cysteine

24

Most common population to acquire a Pseudomonas infection in the lungs.

CF patients

25

What should you suspect if a patient presents coughing up lots of smelly sputum?

Anaerobe infection
-Bacteroides sp. or Fusobacterium sp.

26

Tx for anaerobe lung infection.

Metronidazole
(2-4 months)

27

Unique characteristic of Bacillus anthracis and its major virulence factor.

Polyglutamic Acid Capsule
VF: anthrax toxin

28

Bipolar or safety pin staining.

Yersinia pestis (plague)

29

Tx for Y. pestis

Immediate
-Stretomycin or
-Tetracycline or
-Chloramphenicol

and Isolate them

30

Unpasteurized milk from cattle, goats, or sheep

Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)

31

Rabbits

Francisella tularensis
-causes ulceroglandular disease

32

Treatment for Tularemia

Streptomycin