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Flashcards in Pleura and Lung Transplant Deck (14):
1

Primary neoplasm of the pleura.

Mesothelioma

2

What is the difference between exudate and transudate?

Exudate is fluid that leaks from vessels with HIGH protein concentration and cellular debris with a high specific gravity. Occurs because of inflammation, increased vascular permeability, or injury to the vasculature.

Transudate is fluid that leaks from vessels with LOW protein content, low specific gravity and usually occurs due to imbalance of starling forces like osmotic pressure. Not a result of injury at the site where the fluid leaves the vessels.

3

What is empyema?

Purulent pleural exudate resulting from bacterial or mycotic infection in the pleural space.

4

What is hydrothorax and the most common cause.

Non-inflammatory collections of serous fluid within the pleural cavities. Clear and straw colored.

Most commonly caused by cardiac failure.

5

Most common cause of Hemothorax and how it is identified.

Caused by ruptured aortic aneurysm or vascular trauma. Identified by large clots.

6

Main cause of chylothorax

Obstruction of lymph vessels, usually malignant neoplasms

7

Type of emphysema that can cause pneumothorax.

Paraseptal

8

What two sites are most common for metastatic spread to the pleura?

1. Lung
2. Breast
-ovarian to a lesser degree

9

How is a solitary fibrous tumor identified on gross examination of the pleura?

Pedunculated: attached to pleura by a pedicle
Dense fibrous tissue

10

What type of tumor should be suspected with recurrent pleural effusion?

Malignant mesothelioma

11

Biggest risk factor for malignant mesothelioma.

Asbestos exposure

12

Two major complications of lung transplant.

1. Infection
2. Rejection

13

Two most common infections that occur early after the transplant period.

Fungal
1. Candida
2. Aspergillus

14

What are the main immune cell types seen in acute transplant rejection?

Lymphocytes
Plasma cells