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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (72)
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1

What is the normal vaginal flora?

Lactobacillus spp
Strep viridans
Group B beta-haemolytic streptococcus
Candida spp

2

What does Lactobacillus spp produce that suppresses growth of other bacteria?

Lactic acid
Hydrogen peroxide

3

What % of unselected females are colonised with small numbers of candida and have no symptoms?

30%

4

What are some predisposing factors for candida infection?

Recent antibiotic therapy
High oestrogen levels (pregnancy, some contraceptions)
Poorly controlled diabetes
Immunocompromised patients

5

What is the presentation of candida infection?

Intensely itchy white vaginal discharge

6

How is candida infection diagnosed?

Clinical diagnosis
High vaginal swab for culture- majority of cases C. albicans

7

What is the treatment for a candida infection?

Topical clotrimazole pessary or cream (OTC)
Oral fluconazole

8

What organisms are involved in bacterial vaginosis?

Gardnerella vaginalis
Mobiluncus sp.
Others incl. anaerobes

9

What are the predisposing factors for bacterial vaginosis?

Uncertain

10

What are the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?

Thin, watery, fishy-smelling vaginal discharge

11

How is bacterial vaginosis diagnosed?

Clinical diagnosis
Raised vaginal pH >4.5

12

What laboratory testing can be carried out in bacterial vaginosis?

HVS sent to lab and examined microscopically to look for presence of clue cells
Subjective/inaccurate test
Hay-Ison scoring system estimates proportions of clue cells to epithelial cells and lactobacilli

13

What is the treatment for bacterial vaginosis?

Oral metronidazole

14

What are the 3 classes of prostatitis?

Acute bacterial
Chronic bacterial
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)

15

What are the symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis?

UTI symptoms
Lower abdo/back/perineal/penile pain and tender prostate on exam

16

What is acute bacterial prostatitis a rare complication of?

UTI

17

What organisms cause acute bacterial prostatitis?

Same as UTI- E. coli & other coliforms, enterococcus sp (check for STI in patients <35yo)

18

How is acute bacterial prostatitis diagnosed?

Clinical signs + MSSU for C&S (+- first pass urine for chlamydia/gonorrhoea)

19

How is acute bacterial prostatitis treated?

Ciprofloxacin for 28 days (depending on culture result)
Trimethoprim (28d) if high C. diff risk

20

What are some bacterial causes of STI?

Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea)
Treponema pallidum (syphilis)

21

What are some viral causes of STI?

Human papilloma virus (genital warts)
Herpes simplex (genital herpes)
Hepatitis and HIV

22

What are some parasitic causes of STI?

Trichomonas vaginalis
Phthirus pubis (pubic lice or “crabs”)
Scabies

23

Where does chlamydia infect?

Urethra
Rectum
Throat
Eyes
Endocervix

24

What is Chlamydia trachomatis?

Obligate intracellular bacterial with biphasic life cycle (does not reproduce outside host cell or gram stain)

25

What are the 3 serological groupings of chlamydia trachomatis?

Serovars A-C = Trachoma (eye infection) (NOT an STI)
Serovars D-K = Genital infection
Serovars L1-L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum

26

What is the treatment for uncomplicated chlamydia?

Azithromycin- 1g oral

27

What is the chlamydia infectious cycle?

Attachment and entry
2hrs: Migration to perinuclear area and EB>RB transition
8-24hrs: Inclusion biogenesis and bacterial replication
48hrs: RB>EB transition and cell lysis

28

Where does Neisseria gonorrhoeae infect?

Urethra
Rectum
Throat
Eyes
Endocervix

29

What is Neisseria gonorrhoeae?

Gram -ve diplococcus
Easily phagocytosed by polymorphs
Fastidious organism

30

How is chlamydia and gonorrhoea diagnosed?

Combined nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or PCR- tests for both in 1 test
Highly sensitive and specific