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Flashcards in Menopause Deck (20):
1

What is the average age if menopause?

51yo

2

What is early menopause?

<45yo

3

What is premature menopause?

<40yo

4

What is late menopause?

>54yo

5

How much ova do women have at birth?

~1million

6

What are the effects of oestrogen?

Secondary sexual characteristics
Hair distribution, body shape & fat distribution
Effect on collagen
Bone growth
Proliferates endometrium

7

How is menopause diagnosed?

Symptoms
Pattern of periods
Blood tests

8

Describe FSH and LH release

Released in pulsatile fashion
Single raised level does not confirm menopause
Raised just prior to ovulation
Raised with stopping COCP or depo
Raised with breastfeeding or certain medication (SSRI)

9

What are the physical symptoms of menopause?

Hot flushes
Night sweats
Palpitations
Insomnia
Joint aches
Headaches

10

Describe hot flushes in menopause?

60-80% of women
20% severe
Average 2 years, 10% for 15yrs
Last 3-5mins

11

What are the psychological symptoms of menopause?

Mood swings
Irritability
Anxiety
Difficulty concentrating
Forgetfulness

12

What are the sexual symptoms of menopause?

Vaginal dryness
Loss of libido

13

What are later symptoms of menopause?

Increased urine frequency
Recurrent UTIs
Dysuria
Incontinence
Dry hair and skin
Atrophy of breast and genitals

14

What perimenopausal DUB can occur?

Irregular periods
IMB
PMB

15

What is the conservative management of menopause?

Diet
Wt loss
Exercise
Lifestyle
Caffeine

16

What are some treatments for menorrhagia?

Mefenamic acid
Tranexamic acid
Progesterones
Intra-uterine system
Endometrial ablation
Hysterectomy

17

In what forms can HRT be used in menopause treatment?

Oestrogen alone
Oestrogen and progesterone
Topical or oral

18

What are the benefits of HRT?

Symptom control
Quality of life
Reduced Osteoporotic fracture
Reduced Bowel cancer
Possibly protective Alzheimer’s & Parkinson’s diseases
HRT <10years after menopause fewer risks and less cardiovascular events

19

What are the risks of HRT?

VTE (2-7 extra /1000)
CVA
Breast cancer (6 extra /1000)
Gallbladder disease
HRT >20 years after the menopause greater risk of harm

20

What are some non-HRT menopausal treatments?

Clonidine
SSRIs
Regelle
Yes
Sylk