Flashcards in Prescribing in Pregnancy Deck (46):
Do most drugs cross placenta?
Yes, except LMW drugs e.g. Heparin
What drugs cross more quickly than others?
Small, lipid soluble
How is absorption effected in pregnancy?
How is distribution effected in pregnancy?
Volume of distribution increased due to increased PV and fat stores
Decreased protein binding, so increased free drug
How is metabolism effected in pregnancy?
Increased liver metabolism of some drugs e.g. phenytoin
How is elimination effected in pregnancy?
Elimination of renally excreted drugs increases- increased GFR
Are pharmacodynamics effected in pregnancy?
No significant changes- pregnant women can be more sensitive to some drugs e.g. hypotension with antihypertensives in 2T
What should be taken pre-conception?
Folic acid 400mcg daily for 3 months prior and first 3 months of pregnancy
Safest drug therapy for existing chronic conditions
When is the period of greatest teratogenic risk?
4th to 11th week
Describe drug use in 1T?
Avoid drugs if at all possible unless maternal benefit outweighs risk to fetus
What teratogenic effects can ACEI/ARBs have?
What teratogenic effects can androgens have?
Virilisation of female fetus
What teratogenic effects can antiepileptics have?
Cardiac, facial, limb, neural tube defects
What teratogenic effects can cytotoxics have?
Multiple defects, abortion
What teratogenic effects can lithium have?
What teratogenic effects can methotrexate have?
What teratogenic effects can retinoids?
Ear, CV, skeletal defects
What teratogenic effects can warfarin have?
Limb and facial defects
What can opiates around term?
What can warfarin cause around term?
What did diethylstilbestrol cause?
Vaginal adenocarcinoma in girls aged 15-20yo whose mothers took drug
Urological malignancy in boys
Can untreated epilepsy lead to congenital malformations?
Yes- incidence higher than that of women without epilepsy
Why does pregnancy increase seizures in 10% of women?
Changes in plasma concentrations of drugs: persistent vomiting, increased clearance
What are frequent seizures during pregnancy associated with?
Lower verbal IQ
Do antiepileptics increase the risk of congenital malformations?
Yes- 20/30% risk if on 4 drugs, monotherapy preferred
Avoid valproate, phenytoin
(96% won't have major malformations)
Are insulin and sulfonylureas safe during pregnancy?
Insulin yes, sulfonylureas no- switch to insulin
What does poor diabetic control increase the risk of?
Do diabetic requirements change during pregnancy?
What can beta blockers do in late pregnancy?
Inhibit fetal growth
How should N & V be treated in pregnancy?
How should UTI be treated in pregnancy?
Nitrofurantoin, cephalexin (3T trimethoprim)
How should mild pain be treated in pregnancy?
How should heartburn be treated in pregnancy?
By how much does pregnancy increase the risk of VTE?
What thromboprophylaxis for VTE should be used in pregnancy and by who?
LMWH at delivery and up to 7 days post partum if:
2 or more RFs e.g. obesity, >35yo, smoking, para >3, previous DVT, Caesarean delivery
How should suspected or established DVT or PE be treated?
Therapeutic dose of LMWH
Avoid warfarin in early pregnancy (teratogenic) and late pregnancy (risk of haemorrhage during delivery)
What drugs enter breast milk?
Most, especially small or fat soluble drugs
How can feeding patterns affect amounts of drugs in breastfeeding?
Foremik- protein rick
Hindmilk- higher fat content
Longer feeds, higher amounts of fat soluble drugs in milk
What drug is actively concentrated in breast milk?
Phenobarbitone- suckling difficulties
What can amiodarone cause when passed through breast milk?
What can cytotoxics cause when passed through breast milk?
Bone marrow suppression
What can benzodiazepines cause when passed through breast milk?
What can bromocriptine cause when passed through breast milk?
Which antibiotic given during pregnancy or in early childhood can cause staining of bones and teeth?
Tetracycline- avoid in children up to 8yo
Which antiepileptic drug is particularly associated with cleft lip and palate?