Flashcards in Microbiology of RTI Deck (27)
causes of classical flu
causes of flu-like illnesses
haemophilus influenza is a primary cause of flu. True/ False?
It may be a secondary invader. It's Gm-ve, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium.
Causes initial symptoms of an URTI (mimicking a viral infection). May progress to LRTI
-primary influenza pneumonia
-secondary bacterial pneumonia
-otitis media (infection of middle ear)
-perinatal mortality, prematurity, smaller neonatal size and birth weight
-bed rest, fluids, paracetamol
-antivirals: oseltamivir, zanamivir
ways in which the lab can confirm influenza?
-antibody detection (may need paired acute and convalescent bloods so confirmation is often retrospective)
killed vaccine for flu
grown in hen's eggs/ cell culture, killed, combined with adjuvant
contains 2 influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus
live attenuated vaccine for flu
apart from as a complication of influenza A and influenza B, what are other causes of community acquired pneumonia?
microbiological causes (all bacteria): mycoplasma pneumoniae, coxiella burnetii, chlamydia
(These are known as "atypical" pneumonia).
common cause of CAP
children and young adults have highest incidences
person to person spread
coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
causes pneumonia, and pyrexia (Q fever)
uncommon, sporadic zoonosis (sheep and goats)
a complication of it is culture negative endocarditis
uncommon, sporadic zoonosis (birds)
usually presents as pneumonia
inflammation of the bronchioles (caused by viruses)
usually occurs in children under 2
mainly caused by RSV
nosocomial spread in hospital wards
passive immunisation has poor efficacy
second most common cause (after respiratory syncytial virus) of LRTI in young children.
STI which can cause infantile pneumonia, diagnosed by PCR on urine of mother or throat swabs of child
person to person
mostly causes mild respiratory infections
may be picked up by test for psittacosis
the common cold is caused by viral infections. Give examples?
(there is sneezing, nasal blockage which becomes purulent, secondary bacterial infection may result)
what are the first and second most common causes of LRTI in young children?
what are some viral and bacterial causes of acute pharyngitis, and tonsillitis?
viruses: influenza, rhinovirus, adenovirus, enteroviruses, Epstein barr, cytomegalovirus
Bacteria: Strep pyogenes and sometimes other B-haemolytic strep groups
what causes croup (laryngotracheobronchitis)?
mostly viruses - parainfluenza viruses
(there is stridor, barking cough, hoarse voice)
Typically, who gets pneumonia caused by Staph aureus?
PWIDs, people after having flu
Typically, who gets pneumonia caused by legionella species?
people who have travelled recently, also smokers and immunocompromised are more at risk
who gets pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila psittaci?
people who have contact with birds
who gets pneumonia caused by Coxiella burnetii?
farm workers and vets (diagnosis is by serology as this organism won't grow on culture - which is just as well as the illness is contracted by inhalation)
who typically gets pneumocystic pneumonia (caused by the yeast-like fungus pneumocystis jirovecii)?
people who are immunocompromised e.g. those with HIV/ undergoing chemotherapy
who typically gets klebsiella pneumonia pneumonia?
people with weakened immune systems