Microbiology of RTI Flashcards Preview

Year 1: Respiratory > Microbiology of RTI > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbiology of RTI Deck (27):
1

causes of classical flu

influenza A
influenza B

2

causes of flu-like illnesses

parainfluenza viruses
many others

3

haemophilus influenza is a primary cause of flu. True/ False?

False.
It may be a secondary invader. It's Gm-ve, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium.
Causes initial symptoms of an URTI (mimicking a viral infection). May progress to LRTI

4

flu complications

-primary influenza pneumonia
-secondary bacterial pneumonia
-bronchitis
-otitis media (infection of middle ear)
-perinatal mortality, prematurity, smaller neonatal size and birth weight

5

flu therapy

-bed rest, fluids, paracetamol
-antivirals: oseltamivir, zanamivir

6

ways in which the lab can confirm influenza?

-PCR
-immunofluorescence
-antigen detection
-virus culture
-antibody detection (may need paired acute and convalescent bloods so confirmation is often retrospective)

7

killed vaccine for flu

grown in hen's eggs/ cell culture, killed, combined with adjuvant
contains 2 influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus

8

live attenuated vaccine for flu

administered intra-nasally

9

apart from as a complication of influenza A and influenza B, what are other causes of community acquired pneumonia?

microbiological causes (all bacteria): mycoplasma pneumoniae, coxiella burnetii, chlamydia
(These are known as "atypical" pneumonia).

10

mycoplasma pneumonia

common cause of CAP
children and young adults have highest incidences
person to person spread

11

coxiella burnetii (Q fever)

causes pneumonia, and pyrexia (Q fever)
uncommon, sporadic zoonosis (sheep and goats)
a complication of it is culture negative endocarditis

12

chlamydia psittaci

uncommon, sporadic zoonosis (birds)
usually presents as pneumonia

13

bronchiolitis

inflammation of the bronchioles (caused by viruses)
usually occurs in children under 2
no vaccine
mainly caused by RSV
nosocomial spread in hospital wards
passive immunisation has poor efficacy

14

metapneumovirus

second most common cause (after respiratory syncytial virus) of LRTI in young children.

15

chlamydia trachomatis

STI which can cause infantile pneumonia, diagnosed by PCR on urine of mother or throat swabs of child

16

chlamydophila pneumonia

person to person
mostly causes mild respiratory infections
may be picked up by test for psittacosis

17

the common cold is caused by viral infections. Give examples?

rhinoviruses
adenoviruses
enteroviruses
influenza viruses
parainfluenza viruses
metapneumoviruses
(there is sneezing, nasal blockage which becomes purulent, secondary bacterial infection may result)

18

what are the first and second most common causes of LRTI in young children?

RSV
metapneumovirus

19

what are some viral and bacterial causes of acute pharyngitis, and tonsillitis?

viruses: influenza, rhinovirus, adenovirus, enteroviruses, Epstein barr, cytomegalovirus
Bacteria: Strep pyogenes and sometimes other B-haemolytic strep groups

20

what causes croup (laryngotracheobronchitis)?

mostly viruses - parainfluenza viruses
(there is stridor, barking cough, hoarse voice)

21

Typically, who gets pneumonia caused by Staph aureus?

PWIDs, people after having flu

22

Typically, who gets pneumonia caused by legionella species?

people who have travelled recently, also smokers and immunocompromised are more at risk

23

who gets pneumonia caused by Chlamydophila psittaci?

people who have contact with birds

24

who gets pneumonia caused by Coxiella burnetii?

farm workers and vets (diagnosis is by serology as this organism won't grow on culture - which is just as well as the illness is contracted by inhalation)

25

who typically gets pneumocystic pneumonia (caused by the yeast-like fungus pneumocystis jirovecii)?

people who are immunocompromised e.g. those with HIV/ undergoing chemotherapy

26

who typically gets klebsiella pneumonia pneumonia?

alcoholics (aspiration)
people with weakened immune systems

27

who typically gets pneumonia caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa?

people with cystic fibrosis