Respiratory Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

Year 1: Respiratory > Respiratory Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Pharmacology Deck (19):
1

parasympathetic stimulation of post-ganglionic cholinergic fibres causes bronchiolar _______ and ______ mucus secretion on gland cells

contraction, increased (both these effects are mediated by M3 ACh receptors)

2

sympathetic stimulation causes bronchiolar _____, ______ mucus secretion, _____ mucociliary clearance, and _____ vascular smooth muscle ____

dilation (via adrenaline from adrenal gland), decreased, increased, contraction (this contraction is mediated by a1 adrenoceptors, the rest are by B2)

3

causes of asthma

exposure to allergens e.g. dust mites, dander, pollen, cold dry air

4

asthma, and incidence

a recurrent and reversible obstruction to the airways in response to stimuli, affects 5-10% of people

5

pathological changes that occur in chronic, poorly controlled asthma

-increased smooth muscle mass
-oedema
- increased mucus secretion
- epithelial damage (exposing sensory nerve endings)
- sub-epithelial fibrosis

6

bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma

epithelial damage means that sensory nerve fibres are exposed, so sensitivity of airways to bronchoconstrictor is increased

7

Smooth muscle relaxation is a result of...

dephosphorylation of MLC by myosin phosphatase

8

Smooth muscle relaxation is a result of...

the rate of dephosphorylation of MLC by myosin phosphatase exceeding the rate of phosphorylation of MLC by MLCK. (This requires return of Ca2+ concentration to basal level, by primary and secondary transport).

9

Adrenaline (transmitter from sympathetic ANS) _____ the activity of MLCK by phosphorylating it, and _____ the activity of myosin phosphatase by phosphorylating it

inhibits, stimulates (This is how salbutamol causes smooth muscle relaxation).

10

in asthma, FEV1 is _____ and PEFR is _____

decreased, decreased

11

what are the phases of an asthma attack?

1. Type I hypersensitivity reaction (bronchospasm and acute inflammation)
2. Type IV hypersensitivity reaction (bronchospasm and delayed inflammation)

12

True/ False: Intrinsic asthma is triggered by factors related to allergies

False. Symptoms in this type of asthma are not associated to allergic reaction. No external cause can be identified.

13

Non-atopic asthma produces low level Th1 response and involves macrophages and what type of antibody?

IgG

14

Atopic asthma produces strong Th2 response and what type of antibody?

IgE

15

Early exposure to microbes favours Th1/ Th2 response

Th1

16

Hygienic "western" lifestyle favours atopic/ non-atopic asthma?

atopic

17

Outline of development of allergic asthma?

1. Antigen presented to CD4+ by APC
2. Th0 mature to Th1 and Th2, but preferentially to Th2
3. Th2 produces cytokines which activate B cells, which produce plasma cells which secrete IgE
4.

18

Outline of development of allergic asthma?

1. Antigen presented to CD4+ by APC
2. Th0 mature to Th1 and Th2, but preferentially to Th2
3. Th2 produces cytokines which activate B cells, which produce plasma cells which secrete IgE, and cause eosinophils and mast cells to express IgE receptor
4. Subsequent antigen

19

Outline of development of allergic asthma?

1. Antigen presented to CD4+ by APC
2. Th0 mature to Th1 and Th2, but preferentially to Th2
3. Th2 produces cytokines which activate B cells, which produce plasma cells which secrete IgE, and cause eosinophils and mast cells to express IgE receptor
4. Subsequent antigen presentation: cross-links IgE receptors, stimulatin Ca2+ entry into mast cells and release of intracellular Ca2+ stores, which evokes histamine and spasmogen release, and release of substances that attract cells causing inflammation