Respiratory Public Health Flashcards Preview

Year 1: Respiratory > Respiratory Public Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Public Health Deck (23):
1

define epidemiology

the branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution and possible control of diseases and other factor relating to health

2

hypersensitive pneumonitis AKA extrinsic allergic alveolitis

inflammation of the alveoli within the lung cause by hypersensitivity to inhaled organic dusts (commonly from occupation/ hobbies)

3

pneumonoconiosis

an occupational and a restrictive lung disease caused by inhalation of dust, often in mines and from agriculture

4

examples of extrinsic allergic alveolitis

farmer's lung
bird breeder's lung
cheese worker's lung
mollusc shell hypersensitivity
paprika splitter's lung

5

examples of pneumoconiosis

asbestosis
silicosis
coal worker's lung
berylliosis

6

how is chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis recognised on CT?

extensive fibrosis with honeycombing and air trapping
(treatment is focussed on antigen avoidance)

7

asbestosis

chronic inflammatory and scarring disease (fibrotic disease)affecting the tissue of the lungs. It is caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres

8

asbestos

three types: blue, brown and white.
Blue is easiest to stir and so is prone to causing disease

9

mesothelioma

type of cancer which develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (mesothelium). Most commonly affected area is the pulmonary pleurae.
Asbestos can cause mesothelioma (malignant thickening of the pleura)

10

The risk of developing lung cancer from asbestos is almost twice that of developing it from smoking. True/ False?

True.
RR (relative risk) in asbestos = 6
RR in smoking = 3.8
(RR in asbestos AND smoking = 10)

11

define "synergistic effect"

when interaction between two or more things produces a greater effect than if you added the things on their own
e.g. RR of lung cancer is 30-50 times higher with exposure to both asbestos and smoking

12

Name environmental sources of lung disease

asbestos
mould
cooking smoke
passive smoking
nanoparticles
air/ traffic pollution

13

What is DALY (Disability-adjusted Life Year)?

A measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death

14

What is the significance of cotinine?

It's a metabolic byproduct of nicotine, which is measured in blood or urine, remains in saliva for a long time after exposure. Its presence in non-smokers indicated their level of tobacco smoke exposure and risk for disease caused by second-hand smoke.

15

Components of air pollution?

CO2 from exhausts and energy production
methane from exhausts and industry
CFCs from refrigerants and propellants
NOs from exhausts and industry
Ozone from air
Soot and particulate matter from exhausts and industry
Greenhouse effect
Raised UV radiation (result of ozone destruction)
Acid rain - acidification of rainforests (they die)

16

Photochemical smog

comes from traffic
Components: ozone (O3)
NO
NO2
Volatile organic compounds

17

"London" smog

full of ash and grit
Components:
SO2
NaCl
Calcium sulphate particles
(From high sulphur coal)

18

Effect of traffic fumes on health

reduced lung growth in adolescents
increased rates of asthma and COPD
increased rates of respiratory symptoms like wheeze, cough, and breathlessness

19

dioxins

a sub-set of persistent organic compounds e.g. PCB pesticide, which bioaccumulates up the food chain

20

define water stress

when an area's water supplies drop below 1700m3

21

define absolute scarcity

when water supplies drop below 500m3

22

define water scarcity

when water supplies drop below 1000m3

23

Effects of lead

anaemia
high BP
brain and kidney damage
neurological disorders
cancer
lowered IQ