Flashcards in Respiratory Public Health Deck (23):
the branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution and possible control of diseases and other factor relating to health
hypersensitive pneumonitis AKA extrinsic allergic alveolitis
inflammation of the alveoli within the lung cause by hypersensitivity to inhaled organic dusts (commonly from occupation/ hobbies)
an occupational and a restrictive lung disease caused by inhalation of dust, often in mines and from agriculture
examples of extrinsic allergic alveolitis
bird breeder's lung
cheese worker's lung
mollusc shell hypersensitivity
paprika splitter's lung
examples of pneumoconiosis
coal worker's lung
how is chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis recognised on CT?
extensive fibrosis with honeycombing and air trapping
(treatment is focussed on antigen avoidance)
chronic inflammatory and scarring disease (fibrotic disease)affecting the tissue of the lungs. It is caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres
three types: blue, brown and white.
Blue is easiest to stir and so is prone to causing disease
type of cancer which develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (mesothelium). Most commonly affected area is the pulmonary pleurae.
Asbestos can cause mesothelioma (malignant thickening of the pleura)
The risk of developing lung cancer from asbestos is almost twice that of developing it from smoking. True/ False?
RR (relative risk) in asbestos = 6
RR in smoking = 3.8
(RR in asbestos AND smoking = 10)
define "synergistic effect"
when interaction between two or more things produces a greater effect than if you added the things on their own
e.g. RR of lung cancer is 30-50 times higher with exposure to both asbestos and smoking
Name environmental sources of lung disease
air/ traffic pollution
What is DALY (Disability-adjusted Life Year)?
A measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death
What is the significance of cotinine?
It's a metabolic byproduct of nicotine, which is measured in blood or urine, remains in saliva for a long time after exposure. Its presence in non-smokers indicated their level of tobacco smoke exposure and risk for disease caused by second-hand smoke.
Components of air pollution?
CO2 from exhausts and energy production
methane from exhausts and industry
CFCs from refrigerants and propellants
NOs from exhausts and industry
Ozone from air
Soot and particulate matter from exhausts and industry
Raised UV radiation (result of ozone destruction)
Acid rain - acidification of rainforests (they die)
comes from traffic
Components: ozone (O3)
Volatile organic compounds
full of ash and grit
Calcium sulphate particles
(From high sulphur coal)
Effect of traffic fumes on health
reduced lung growth in adolescents
increased rates of asthma and COPD
increased rates of respiratory symptoms like wheeze, cough, and breathlessness
a sub-set of persistent organic compounds e.g. PCB pesticide, which bioaccumulates up the food chain
define water stress
when an area's water supplies drop below 1700m3
define absolute scarcity
when water supplies drop below 500m3
define water scarcity
when water supplies drop below 1000m3