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Flashcards in Micturation Deck (36)
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1

About how long is the ureter

25-35 cm long

2

How does the ureter help move urine

Undergoes peristalsis like intestines

3

What enhances ureteral peristalsis

Parasympathetic; inhibited by sympathetic

4

What modulates ureteral peristalsis

Sensory nerves

5

What does blocking of ureteral flow cause

Ureteral dilation

6

What often precedes acute renal failure

Hydronephrosis - dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces

7

What is the ureterorenal reflex

Blocked ureter leads to decreased urine output

8

What is the first location of ureteral constriction

UPJ (ureteropelvic junction)

9

What are the 2-4 constrictions of the ureter

-behind testicular or ovarian A or V
-pelvic brim (over external iliac A and V)
-where the ureter transverses the bladder wall

10

What is the the vesicoureteral reflux

Backflow of urine into the ureter and increases the risk of pyelonephritis

11

What is the detrusor muscle

SM of the bladder that contracts in micturition

12

What is the trigone

Posterior wall of bladder where ureters enter bladder and where the bladder neck opens into the posterior urethra

13

What is the internal sphincter of the bladder

SM in the bladder neck that contracts during rest

Involuntary

14

What is the external sphincter of the bladder

Skeletal muscle located in the urogenital diaphragm

Voluntary

15

What does the sensory nerve fibers of the bladder run with

Pelvic splanchnic N or hypogastric plexus

16

Where is the sacral micturition center

S2-4

17

What signals bladder fullness

Aδ fibers

These are myelinated

18

What signals bladder pain

C fibers

These are unmyelinated

More likely in disease states

19

When do parasympathetics predominate in the bladder

When emptying

20

What is the parasympathetic n for the bladder? What does it cause?

Pelvis splanchnic N

Causes detrusor contraction and internal sphincter relaxation

21

What are the receptors of the pelvic splanchnic n

ACh, muscarinic M3

This is the parasymp to the baldder

22

When does the sympathetic response dominate the bladder

Filling

23

What level is the sympathetic of the bladder

L2

24

What is the main sympathetic n for the bladder

Hypogastric n

25

What is the receptor of the hypogastric N

NE

Adrenergic

α1 in the urethra and bladder neck

β2-3 in detrusor muscle

26

What is the somatic nerve for the bladder? What level is it at

Pudendal N
S2-4

27

What does the pudendal n do for the bladder

Urine retention when activated

28

What is the NT and receptor of the pudendal N

ACh and nicotinic

29

Where is the urine storage or “guarding reflex” organized

Spinal cord

30

Where are the voiding reflexes organized

Brain