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1

Which of the following statements is not true for the function of the kidney?

it is the organ of homeothermia

it maintains acid/base balance

it contributes to homeostasis

conserves water, electrolites, glucose and aminoacids

It is the organ of homeothermia

2

What is true for the cortical nephron?

its descending segments approach the papilla

its tubular system is located in the cortex

its special region is the juxtaglomerular apparatus

its tubular system is located in the inner medulla

Its tubular system is located in the cortex

3

Which of the following statements is not true for the juxtamedullary nephron?

its special region is the juxtaglomerular apparatus

its tubular system is located in the inner medulla

its tubular system is located in the cortex

its descending segments approach the papilla

Its tubular system is located in the cortex

4

Which of the following histological formations is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

juxtaglomerular cells
macula densa cells
mesangial cells
cells of the proximal tubule

Cells of the proximal tubule

5

What is true for the blood supply of the kidney?

the glomerular capillary continues in venules

the vas afferens is not a part of the nephron

the vas efferens continues in the peritubular venous capillary system

it displays a double capillarization

It displays a double capillarization

6

What is characteristic of the system of vasa recta?

it surrounds the collecting tubules

they run alongside the deep reaching loops of Henle

they run perpendicularly to the proximal tubules

their primary function is the nutrient supply to the glomerulus

They run alongside the deep reaching loops of Henle

7

What is true for the sympathetic innervation of the kidney?

It is poor

It increases sympathetic stimualtion and causes the GFR to increase

most sympathetic fibres get to the afferent arterioles

at rest considerable sympathetic discharge can be detected

Most sympathetic fibres get to the afferent arterioles

(Mostly runs to the
α – adrenergic
receptors of v. afferent.
Result of Stimulation:
vasoconstriction of
afferent arterioles,
therefore GFR is reduced.
At rest, AP firing is minimal, while
during physical activity
or stress AP firing
is intensive)

8

What is true for the parasympathetic innervation of the kidney?

they mostly get to the afferent arterioles

they detect the firmness of the renal capsule

the kidney is very rich in parasympathetic nerves

it acts through cholinergic mediation

It acts through cholinergic mediation (function not clear)

9

What is the role of the pain sensing fibres in the renal capsule?

they sense the firmness of the renal capsule

they react to increased renal blood flow

its importance is negligible

if activated they indirectly increase the GFR

They sense the firmness of the renal capsule (stretching)

10

What does the renal autoregulation ensure?

a constant 80 mmHg pressure in the renal arteries

that the mean arterial pressure can be followed without delay in the vas afferent

it ensures constant blood pressure values mainly via the sympathetic nervous system

it maintains the pressure needed for filtration by reacting to a higher pressure with constriction and to a lower pressure with dilatation

It maintains the pressure needed for filtration by reacting to a higher pressure with constriction and to a lower pressure with dilatation

11

PCT

Proximal convoluted tubule

12

PST

Proximal straight tubule

13

Henle loop:
DTL

Desc. thin limb

14

Henle loop:
ATL

Asc. thin limb

15

Henle loop:
TAL

Thick asc. limb

16

DCT

Distal convoluted tubule

17

CNT

Distal connective tubule

18

CCD

Cortical collecting duct

19

MCD

Medullary collecting duct

20

GBM

Glomerular basement membrane

21

What is the blood pressure in the renal arterioles?

70-250 mmHg
it changes against the midpressure
50 mmHg
120 mmHg

50 mmHg

22

Where are the vasoregulative factors contributing to the renal autoregulation produced?

in the adrenal glands

in the juxtaglomerular cells

in the mesangial cells

probably in the macula densa

Probably in the macula densa

23

RBF

Renal blood flow
(25%of blood flows through the kidney)

RBF = RPF/ 1 – Htc
RBF = 670/ 1 – 0.44 = 1200 ml/min

24

PGE

Prostaglandin

very strong vasodilator. Equally affects v.aff & v.eff,
so RBF increases, while GFR remains unchanged.

25

What is the role of the kallikrein-kinin system in the renal autoregulation?

the kinins induce strong vasoconstriction

bradykinin induces local vasodilatation

it gets activated with falling arterial midpressure

one of its components, the PGE, compensates the effect of the angiotensin-II

Bradykinin induces local vasodilatation

Effect: stimulates the hepatic Kininogen, resulting in Bradykinin production, which is a strong vasodilator (like the PGE)

26

RPF

Renal plasma flow

27

RAS

Renin Angiotensin System

28

What method can be used to examine the renal osmotic gradient?

clearance test
isotope measures
micropuncture
ultrasound

Micropuncture

By the improvement of techniques the production of such fine glass capillaries became possible, which could be introduced to the different sections of the tubules and it was possible to take samples under a microscope from the most diverse segments.

29

What method can be used to follow the renal function in an intact organism?

no methods are available
micropuncture
ultrasound
isotope techniques

Isotope techniques

The labelled substance (isotope) intravenously
administered to the peripheral venous system appears in the kidney, there it reaches a maximum concentration, and as time passes it eliminates with defined speed.

30

What method can be used to examine the kidney's anatomical parts in an intact organism?

ultrasound
clearance test
micropuncture
isotope techniques

Ultrasound

31

What method can be used to examine the renal blood flow?

collecting urine
clearance test
ultrasound
only a direct surgical operation is possible

Clearance test

Clearance is a measure of the volume of plasma completely freed
of a given substance per unit time by the kidney (the usual unit is
ml/min). It is a measure of the ability of the kidney to remove a
substance from the blood plasma and to forward it to the urine (to
put it in another way: clearance

32

What is the reason for the 100 times larger filtration coefficient in the renal glomerulus compared to any other parts of the microcirculation?

there is a higher effective filtration pressure

the portal circulation of the kidney

the special permeability of the basal membrane

the increase of the colloid osmotic pressure because of the protein retention

The special permeability of the basal membrane

33

Which of the following factors does not influence the rate of ultrafiltration in the renal glomerulus?

effective filtration pressure

the size of the filtrating area

the quality of the barrier

the value of the arterial mid pressure

The value of the arterial mid pressure

34

Which formula describes the renal effective filtration pressure?

EFP = glomerular pressure - (capsular pressure + glomerular colloid osmotic pressure)

EFP = (glomerular pressure + capsular pressure) - glomerular colloid osmotic pressure

EFP = (glomerular pressure - glomerular colloid osmotic pressure) + capsular pressure

EFP = glomerular pressure - glomerular colloid osmotic pressure

EFP = glomerular pressure - (capsular pressure + glomerular colloid osmotic pressure)

35

What describes the glomerular colloid osmotic pressure within the glomerulus?

towards the vas efferent the pressure falls from 36 mmHg to 28 mmHg

towards the vas efferent the pressure rises from 28 mmHg to 36 mmHg

at the beginning of the vas afferent the pressure is 36 mmHg

it is a constant value, 36 mmHg

Towards the vas efferent the pressure falls from 36 mmHg to 28 mmHg

36

What is the value of the effective filtration pressure in the vas efferent?

it is lower than the pressure in the vas afferent but it is never equal to 0

12 mmHg

4 mmHg

36 mmHg

4 mmHg

37

How much is the total ultrafiltration per day?

60 litre / 100 kgbwt
28-36 litre / 100 kgbwt
100-120 litre / 100 kgbwt
180-200 litre /100 kgbwt

180-200 litre / 100kgbwt

38

Which factor is the most important driving force in the tubular reabsorption?

intravasal oncotic pressure

hydrostatic pressure

arterial midpressure

pulse pressure in the a. renalis

Intravasal oncotic pressure

39

How are most materials tansported during tubular reabsorption?

paracellularly
para- and transcellularly
transcellularly
by pynocytosis

Para- and transcellularly

40

What percent of the filtration is reabsorbed in the tubular system?

30 %
99.9%
more than 90%
65 %

More than 90%

41

What is characteristic of the tubular secretion?

it is exclusively a primary active transport

it is a passive process

substances get to the peritubular capillary from the tubular lumen

substances get to the tubular lumen from the peritubular capillary

Substances get to the tubular lumen from the peritubular capillary

42

What is the average volume of urine per minute in animals?

2-3 ml/min/100 kgbwt

0.1 litre/day/ kgbwt

10-15 ml/min/100 kgbwt

0.2-0.4 ml/min/100 kgbwt

2-3 ml/min/100 kgbwt

43

What is true for extraction?

substances get to the tubular lumen from the peritubular capillary

renal ability of removing substances from the plasma

its value is 0, if the kidney totally extracts the given substance

the process goes only against the concentracion gradient

Renal ability of removing substances from the plasma

44

Which equation describes the extraction correctly?

E = (Pv - Pa) / Pv
E = (Pa + Pv) x Pa
E = (Pa - Pv) / Pa
E = (Pa-Pv) x Pa

E = (Pa - Pv) / Pa

45

What is true for clearance?

it is the measure of filtration

its measurement is only possible by surgical intervention

it describes the mass of material fitlered per unit time

it gives the amount of plasma that is entirely purified by the kidney from a given substance per unit time

It gives the amount of plasma that is entirely purified by the kidney from a given substance per unit time

46

Which substance can be used to measure glomerular filtration rate?

inulin
para-aminohippuric acid
glucose
urea

Inulin

47

Which formula describes the clearance correctly?

C = (U x P) / V
C=U / P x V
C = (U - P) / V
C = (P x V) / U

C = U / P x V

48

What is glomerular filtration rate?

it is the amount of substance that appears in the filtrate in 1 minute

it shows what fraction of the plasma that arrives to the kidney becomes filtered

the volume of ultrafiltrate produced by the kidney per unit time

the amount of plasma flowing through the kidney per unit time

The volume of ultrafiltrate produced by the kidney per unit time

49

What substance is suitable for measuring the GFR?

urea
para-aminohippuric acid
creatine
inulin

Inulin

50

What is the filtration fraction?

it gives the fraction renal plasma flow that is filtered per unit time

it is the amount of substance that becomes filtered in 1 minute

it is the amount of substance reabsorbed per unit time

it is that fraction of the renal plasma flow that perfuses the nephrons

It gives the fraction renal plasma flow that is filtered per unit time

51

What is meant by the filtration capacity (filtered load)?

it gives the fraction of the plasma what becomes filtered

the mass of a substance that appears in the filtrate per unit

the volume of the plasma perfusing the kidney per unit time

the volume of ultrafiltrate per unit time

The mass of a substance that appears in the filtrate per unit

52

What is the average value of the GFR?

60 ml/min/100 kgbwt
75 ml/min/100 kgbwt
120 ml/min/100 kgbwt
600 ml/min/100 kgbwt

120 ml/min/100 kgbwt

53

Which formula describes the GFR?

GFR = (U / P) - V
GFR = (U - P) / V
GFR = (U x P) / V
GFR = (U / P) x V

GFR = (U / P) x V

54

By what process is inulin excreted from the kidney?

only by filtration

it filtered and then it is reabsorbed entirely from the tubules

filtration and secretion

after filtration 50% is reabsorbed in the tubules

Only by filtration

55

What is the RPF?

the amount of ultrafiltrate per unit time

the volume of plasma perfusing the kidney per unit time

it is the mass of a substance that appears in the filtrate per minute

it is the fraction of the plasma that becomes filtered

The volume of plasma perfusing the kidney per unit time

56

What is the average value of the RPF?

40 ml/min/100 kgbw
350 ml/min/100 kgbw
600 ml/min/100 kgbw
180-200 ml/min/100 kgbw

600 ml/min/100 kgbw

57

What is the formula for the RPF?

RPF = (U - P) / V
RPF = Pa - Pv / Pa
RPF = (U / P) x V
RPF = C / E

RPF = C / E

58

What substance is adequate for measuring the RPF?

para-aminohippuric acid
inulin
endogenous creatinin
urea

Para-aminohippuric acid

59

What species has a physiologically changing GFR?

cattle
dog
pig
horse

Dog

60

What is the physiological value for the filtration fraction?

45 %
15 %
20 %
8-10%

20%

61

What is true for GFR?

the mesangial cells detect the potassium concentration of the filtrate

the GFR is altered due primarily to sympathetic influence

the GFR is parallel to the mean arterial pressure

the GFR is independent of the mean arterial pressure in most species

The GFR is independent of the mean arterial pressure in most species

62

The clearance of which substances are independent of its plasma concentration?

inulin
glucose
para-aminohippuric acid
hemoglobin

Inulin

63

The transport of which substance has a Tm?

inulin
glucose
urea
water

Glucose

64

What is the tubular reabsorption maximum?

the plasma concentration value above which reabsorption is only possible through active transport

the phenomenon in which a substance is completely retained from the urine

the plasma concentration value at which all tubular cells reach the maximum of their reabsorptive capacity

the plasma concentration value at which 50 percent of the tubular cells reach the maximum of their reabsorptive capacity

The plasma concentration value at which all tubular cells reach the maximum of their reabsorptive capacity

65

How can the secretion of a substance be described in connection to its plasma concentration?

with a sigmoid curve

first it increases in a linear fashion then decreases and finally becomes parallel with the filtration

it increases in a linear fashion

for a while it increases with the plasma concentration then reaches a plateau

For a while it increases with the plasma concentration then reaches a plateau

66

Of the following statements which one is not typical of the transport taking place in the proximal tubule?

the paracellular transport is of a small scale at this section

70 percent of the filtered substance is reabsorbed

the reabsorption is obligatory in this segment

hormonal regulation is of little importance

The paracellular transport is of a small scale at this section

67

What is typical of the Na+ transport taking place in the proximal tubule?

Na+ diffuses from the interstitium to the cell

its transport depends on the Na+/K+ - ATPase pump

tubular Na+ concentration temporarily increases

Na+ moves in a passive way only

Its transport depends on the Na+/K+ - ATPase pump

68

What is typical of the H+ transport taking place in the proximal tubule?

the process does not have a significant effect on the pH of the tubular lumen

the H+ secretion is a passive process

the Na+ uptake via secondary active transport facilitates in H+ secretion

the H+ moves together with the Na + in a symport process

The Na+ uptake via secondary active transport facilitates in H+ secretion

69

What happens to the HCO3- ion in the proximal tubule?

30% of the HCO3- transforms into CO2 and water, the water is absorbed, the CO2 is excreted with the urine

in form of NaHCO3 it is passively reabsorbed

the HCO3- gets into the cell with active transport

HCO3- is reabsorbed indirectly with the mediation of CO2 formation

HCO3- is reabsorbed indirectly with the mediation of CO2 formation

70

What happens to the CO2 in the proximal tubular cell?

the carbonic anhydrase enzyme creates the HCO3-, which gets into the interstitium via a Na +/3HCO3- symport

most of the CO2 that got into the cell diffuses back into the lumen

almost all of the CO2 diffuses across the cell into the interstitium in a passive way

it gets into the interstitium via an HCO3-/Cl- antiport process

The carbonic anhydrase enzyme creates the HCO3-, which gets into the interstitium via a Na+/3HCO3-symport

71

What is typical of the Cl- transport taking place in the proximal tubule?

the Cl- absorption only takes place at high lumen pH values

it gets into the cell via Cl-/acidic anion antiport

a vast majority transforms into acid with the luminal H+ and diffuses freely into the cell

it gets into the cell through a K+/Cl- co- transport

It gets into the cell via Cl-/acidic anion antiport

72

What is typical of the water transport taking place in the proximal tubule?

water is reabsobed passively by AQP-2 channels

water transport is negligible in the proximal tubule

water moves paracellularly and transcellularly. The latter is made possible by the AQP-1 channels

paracellular transport of water is insignificant

Water moves paracellularly and transcellularly. The latter is made possible by AQP-1 channels

73

How does the transport of glucose and amino acids take place?

with Na+ antiport

no carrier proteins are needed for their transport

it takes place in only in thedescending limb of the Henle's loop with active transport

100% of the filtered amount is reabsorbed by Na+ symport

100% of the filtered amount is reabsorbed by Na+ symport

74

What is typical of the descending limb of the Henle's loop?

it is a section with relatively high permeability

there is significant active transport in both directions

it is a section with high resorptive and secretory capability

paracellular transport can be observed

It is a section with relatively high permeability

75

What is typical of the transport taking place in the ascending thick segment of the Henle's loop?

most important is the Na/K - ATPase pump function on the luminal side

the most important symport protein is the furosemid sensitive Na+/K+2Cl- transporter

30% of the filtered substance is reabsorbed here

there is negligible secretion and reabsorption here

The most important symport protein is the furosemid sensitive Na+/K+2Cl- transporter

76

What transport- processes are typical of the ascending thick segment of the Henle's loop?

the filtrate becomes highly hyperosmotic here

the electroneutral environment is not favorable to the ion transport

it is impermeable to water

Na+ reabsorption increases when furosemid is added

It is impermeable to water

77

What is typical of the transport taking place in the convoluted distal tubule?

Na+ is passively flowing into the cell in the direction of its electrical gradient

the reabsorption can be blocked by furosemid

there is a K+/Cl- co- transport on the luminal side

the Na+/Cl- symport protein facilitates the Na reabsorption

The Na+/Cl- symport protein facilitates the Na reabsorption

78

Which substance can prevent the Na +/Cl- symport protein from functioning?

tiazid
furosemid
ouabain
amilorid

Tiazid

79

Where is the hormonal regulation of little importance?

in the connecting duct

in the ascending thick limb of the Henle's loop

in the cortical segment of the collecting tubule

in the medulary portion of the collecting tubule

In the ascending thick limb of the Henle's loop

80

What is typical of the transport taking place in the cortical segment of the collecting tubule and the connecting duct?

the Na+/K+ transport on the luminal side is helped by an antiport protein

the antiport protein responsible for the ion transport can be inhibited by amilorid

the expression of the Na+ and the K+ channels is aldosterone dependent

the amilorid affects the K+ transport selectively

The expression of the Na+ and the K+ channels is aldosterone dependent

81

What is typical of water transport?

the transport of water is hormonally regulated in every portion of tubular system

the functioning of the AQP-1 channel is hormonally regulated

in the collecting tubules water moves via AQP-2 channels

ADH diminishes the number of the AQP-1 channels in the proximal tubule

In the collecting tubules water moves via AQP-2 channels

82

How does water transport take place in the collecting tubules?

it is a hormonally regulated transport

through the AQP-1 water-channels

through AQP-2 channels on the basolateral side of the cell

via paracellular, ADH regulated way

It is a hormonally regulated transport

83

Which tubular segments is permeable to urea?

proximal tubule

thin descending limb of the Henle's loop

convoluted distal tubule

cortical connecting duct

Thin descending limb of the Henle's loop

84

How do the cells protect against the hyperosmosis in the layers of the kidney?

the cell produces osmoliths, which decreases the osmolality of the liquid- layer surrounding the cell

they have a thick withstanding wall

they produce osmoliths which provide within the cell an osmolality similar to the environment

the membrane operates a special channels system which allows water to flow out actively

They produce osmoliths which provide within the cell an osmolality similar to the environment

85

How large is the osmotic gradient in the kidney of domestic animals?

600-2000 mosm/l
max. 9400 mosm/l
300-1200 mosm/l
300-2400 mosmol/l

300-1200 mosm/l

86

What is true for the countercurrent multiplier?

it is realized by the opposite flow and close anatomical vicinity of the descending and ascending tubular segments

it stabilizes low osmolarity in the medulla

it is dependent on the vasa recta system

the high osmolarity in the cortical layers is ensured by the presence of urea

It is realized by the opposite flow and close anatomical vicinity of the descending and ascending tubular segments

87

What is true for the countercurrent exchanger?

its major driving force is the sodium/ potassium/ 2 chlorides symporter

the arrangement of the vasa recta system allows the nutrient supply of the deep medullary layers without destroying the hyperosmolarity

it is based on the fact that the vasa recta run perpendicular to the loop of Henle

it ensures that the osmotic equivalents can be reabsorbed from the deep medullary interstitium

The arrangement of the vasa recta system allows the nutrient supply of the deep medullary layers without destroying the hyperosmolarity

88

What happens in the ascending thin limb of the loop of Henle?

the osmolality of luminal fluid increases

luminal fluid gets isoosmotic

NaCl is taken up from the interstitium

the tubular fluid loses osmotic equivalents

The tubular fluid loses osmotic equivalents

89

What happens in the ascending thick limb of the loop of Henle?

the luminal fluid gets isoosmotic

water diffuses out passively into the interstitium

NaCl diffuses into the interstitium passively

the tubular fluid is hypoosmotic

The tubular fluid is hypoosmotic

90

What happens in the collecting ducts?

in presence of ADH water diffuses toward the interstitium

in absence of ADH water diffuses toward the interstitium

in presence of ADH water is transported toward the interstitium in active manner

water transport depends on aldosterone in this segment

In presence of ADH water diffuses toward the interstitium

91

What is the freewater clearance?

it is the ratio of the minute diuresis and the osmotic clearance

it tells how much free water is given to the isoosmotic urine or taken back from it by the kidney

it tells how much water is extracted from the body by the kidney per minute

It gives how much water osmotically bound water passes through the kidney per unit time

It tells how much free water is given to the isoosmotic urine or taken back from it by the kidney

92

What is the osmotic plateau?

it gives the value of the highest osmotic

concentration in the kidney interstitium

it gives the degree of urine concentration in the kidney at a given time

it shows the maximum concentrating ability of the kidney

it shows the minimum volume of the water conserved

It shows the maximum concentrating ability of the kidney

93

What is the effect of the angiotensin-II on the kidney function?

it has only indirect effect on the kidney

it reduces the water uptake

it inhibits the ADH production

it indirectly increases salt retention

It indirectly increases salt retention

94

What is the primary stimulus for the aldosterone release?

increased plasma K+ concentration

increased plasma Na+ concentration

angiotensin-II

increased blood pressure

Increased plasma K+ concentration

95

Which segment is the main target of the aldosterone action?

the proximal tubule

the connecting duct and the collecting duct's cortical segment

the proximal convoluted tubule

the ascending limb of loop of Henle

The connecting duct and the collecting duct's cortical segment

96

How does the aldosterone exert its effect in kidney?

sodium potassium pump is inhibited

K+ channel proteins are inhibited

sodium potassium pump protein, Na+ channel and K+ channel proteins are increasingly expressed

Na+ channel and K+ channel proteins get inhibited

Sodium potassium pump protein, Na+ channel and K+ channel proteins are increasingly expressed

97

What is the major effect of the ADH?

the kidney rises the Na retention

inhibits the the water- retention

increases the Na reabsorption

increases the water reabsorption

Increases water reabsorption

98

What stimulates ADH secretion the most?

hyperosmosis of the plasma

increasing of blood pressure

signaling of volume receptors

increased secretion of the atrial natriuretic peptide

Hyperosmosis of the plasma

99

What is the Verney- mechanism?

Injecting hypoosmotic fluid decreases the urine production significantly

injecting hyperosmotic fluid decreases the urine production promptly

for increasing blood pressure urine production decreases

due to strong pain ADH secretion is inhibited so the urine production decreases

Injecting hyperosmotic fluid decreases the urine production promptly

100

What is the primary stimulus for the atrial natriuretic peptide?

if the Na+ concentration decreasing in the tubules

hypovolemia

dilatation of muscle
elements of the atria

high blood pressure

Dilatation of muscle elements of the atria

101

What is the basic role of the atrial natriuretic peptide?

it increases the aldosterone secretion

it increases ADH and renin secretion

it decreases the GFR

it increases the Na+ excretion, decreases the water retention

It increases the Na+ excretion, decreases the water retention

102

Which of the following hormones exerts an action on the kidney?

parathormone
d-hormone
erytropoetin
triiodidetironine

Parathormone

103

Which of the following hormones is produced in kidney?

parathormone
triiodidetironin
calcitonin
glicocorticoids

Triiodidetironin

104

Which hormone is responsible for keeping the plasma Na+ concentration at a constant level?

aldosterone
angiotenzin-II
ADH
ANP

ADH

105

What proccesses take place in the case of hyperosmosis?

increased ADH and aldosteron cause increased freewater clearance

increasing in aldosterone level causes Na+ and water loss

Na+ is reabsorbed

increased ADH causes water retention

Increased ADH causes water retention

106

What proccesses take place in the case of hypoosmosis?

first hypervolemic isoosmosis is restored

free water clearance
decreases

aldosterone level decreases

increasing Na+ excretion

First hypervolemic isoosmosis is restored

107

What proccesses take place in the case of hypovolemia?

angiotensin-II decreases

RAS gets activated

K+ retention increases

aldosteron level decreases

RAS gets activated

108

What proccesses take place in the case of hypervolemia?

ADH activation

Na+ and water loss due to RAS activation

RAS inhibition

aldosterone stimulation

RAS inhibition

109

How does the passing of the urine toward the bladder happen at normal urine production rate?

the way of flow is determined by the sympathetic tone of the ureter

due to parasympathetic stimulation

continuously

in small portion following each other

In small portion following each other

110

What inhibits the urine backflow from the bladder to the kidney?

the ureter connects to the bladder at an angle that automatically closes the pathway of urine

there is a sphintcher consisting of striated muscles in the ureter

the pressure conditions in the pelvis of the kidney

the gravitation

The ureter connects to the bladder at an angle that automatically closes the pathway of urine

111

What does the plasticity of bladder wall mean?

the wall of the bladder consists of special skeletal muscle fibres and elastic fibers

the bladder reacts to tension with relaxation

activity of intramural mechanoreceptors in the bladder increases linearly with wall tension

collagenous fibres in the bladder wall resists tension

The bladder reacts to tension with relaxation

112

Where is the regulatory center of urination?

in the thalamus

in the medulla oblongata

in the pons

in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord

In the pons

113

How is the bladder regulated in the filling phase?

due to sympathetic activity all the skeletal sphincters are contracted

activity of somatic motor system acts on the musculature of the bladder relaxing it

the musculature of the bladder is relaxed due to intense parasympathetic activity, the musculature of the urethra contracts due to sympathetic effect

sympathetic basal tone relaxes the muscles of the bladder and it inhibits the parasympathetic activity presynaptically

Sympathetic basal tone relaxes the muscles of the bladder and it inhibits the parasympathetic activity presynaptically

114

How is the bladder regulated in the phase of urination?

the wall of the bladder contracts and the sphincters dilate due to parasympathetic activity but the sympathetic and somatic activation is inhibited

the wall of the bladder contracts and the sphincters dilate due to sympathetic activation

activity of parasympathetic lumbar center is increased by the medullary center which makes the wall of the bladder contract and the sphincters relax

increased sympathetic activity inducing urination may be affected by cortical information

The wall of the bladder contracts and the sphincters dilate due to parasympathetic activity but the sympathetic and somatic activation is inhibited