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1

What is the function of colon?

reabsorption of water and electrolytes

reabsorption of amino acids

secretion of cellulose cleaving enzymes

catabolism of proteins

Reabsorption of water and electrolytes

2

Which products of microbial fermentation can be utilized by ruminants?

proteins
cellulose
volatile fatty acid
vitamins and volatile fatty acid

Vitamins and volatile fatty acids

3

Which statement is true for the plexus submucosus?

plexus submucosus controls the local circulation, the secretion and the absorption

it regulates peristalsis

it increases the speed of peristalsis

it controls the intestinal movements

Plexus submucosus controls the local circulation, the secretion and the absorption

4

What is needed for B12 vitamin absorption?

R protein
proteinX
transcortin
transcorrin

Transcorrin

5

How can H+ ions get into the lumen of the stomach?

H+ ions originating from the dissociaton of water, get into the lumen by the H+/Cl- pump found in the luminal membrane of the oxyntic (parietal) cells

H+ ions originating from the dissociation of carbonic acid, get into the lumen by the H+/K + pump found in the luminal membrane of the oxyntic (parietal) cells

H+ ions originating from the dissociation of metabolic water, get into the lumen by the H+/K+ pump

the H+/Cl- pump is found in the luminal membrane of the chief cells

H+ ions originating from the dissociation of metabolic water, get into the lumen by the H+/K+ pump

6

Where does the gas go from the esophagus during the eructation?

mainly into the spaces of the lung

through the oral cavity to the outside

through the nasal cavity to the outside

through the oral cavity and the nasal cavity to the outside

mainly into the spaces of the lung

7

How many ciliary bacteria can be found physiologically in 1 ml rumen fluid?

10 thousand
1 million
1 billion
10 billion

1 million

8

Which species has the shortest passage time?

horse
sheep
swine
cattle

Swine

9

Which plasma factor determines food uptake?

glucose
hormones
volatile fatty acids
temperature of circulating blood

Glucose

10

Why is the intragastric pressure constant during filling?

because of automatic contraction

it is the result of regulated muscle function

it can be explained by the law of Laplace

the intragastric pressure is kept constant by sympathetic innervation

It can be explained by the law of Laplace

11

Which products of microbial fermentation can be utilized by monogastric herbivores?

proteins
amino acids
volatile fatty acid
vitamines

Volatile fatty acid

12

How does n.vagus influence the forestomach?

the ventral branch of vagus supplies the reticulum first

the ventral branch of vagus supplies the rumen

vagus is the nerve of the abomasum only

in ruminants the vagus only supplies the intestines

the ventral branch of vagus supplies the reticulum first

13

Is the high lactic acid content in the ruminoreticulum advantageous for the animal?

yes, because it transforms to propionic acid easily

no, because it harms mucous membrane and creates acidosis

yes, because it serves as energy source

yes, because it stimulates the absorption of glucose

no, because it harms mucous membrane and creates acidosis

14

What is happening during vomiting?

repeated expiration with closed glottis

intrapulmonary pressure falls

repeated expiration with opened cardia

repeated increase of the intrathoracic pressure

Repeated increase of the intrathoracic pressure

15

What reduces the absorption of nutrients?

cholecystochinin, glucagon

low estrogen level

emptying of the digestive tract

reduction of temperature of the circulating blood

Cholecystochinin, glucagon

16

What binds the iron cations in the lumen of the intestines?

transferrin
transcorrin
ferritin
hemosiderin

Transferrin

17

where does the gastric mixing movement begin?

from the middle of the corpus

from the cardia

from the antrum

from the pylorus

From the middle of the corpus

18

What is a tonic contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells?

contraction of the gastrointestinal canal for minutes, maybe hours

typical, rhythmical contraction of the gastrointestinal canal

movement due to slow waves

movement due to increase of the membrane potential

Contraction of the gastrointestinal canal for minutes, maybe hours

19

What material stimulates the function of villi?

villikinin
cholecystokinin
VIP
gastrin

Villikinin

20

What is the role of transcobalamin 1?

keeping cobalamin in the plasma
take cobalamin into the liver
take cobalamin into the cells
take cobalamin into the kidneys

Keeping cobalamin in the plasma

Transcobalamin I (TCN1), also known as haptocorrin, R-factor, and R-protein

21

which bacterium do organic acids digest in the rumen?

Veilonella gasogenes
Bacterioides ruminicola
Lahnospira multiparus
Bacterioides ruminantium

Veilonella gasogenes

22

What does "passage time" mean?

duration of food in the gut
microbial digestion time of food
duration of food in the stomach
resorption time of food

Duration of food in the gut

23

Which species receive maternal immunity partly via the placenta and partly from the colostrum?

Primates
lepidae
ruminants
predators

Predators?

24

Where is the mucosal coating of the small intestines produced?

in the Lieberkühn glands

in the apical region of the intestinal villi

in the Brunner's glands

in the aged enterocytes

In the Brunner's glands

25

What does pancreatic amylase split?

chain ending peptide bonds
alpha-1-4 bonds
all saccharides
beta-1-4 bonds

alpha-1-4-glycosidic bonds (straight starch chain)

26

Which hormone stimulates gastric emptying?

secretin
CCK
VIP
gastrin

Gastrin

27

How do the chylomicrons leave the enterocyte?

by dissolvement on the basal membrane
by exocytosis on the basal membrane
by dissolvement on the lateral membrane
by exocytosis on the lateral membrane

By exocytosis on the lateral membrane

28

What is the effect of pain in the intestine tract?

dilatation of the colon
total paralysis
a strong contraction of colon
acceleration of peristalsis

Total paralysis

29

Which statement is true for the rumen?

40 C degrees temperature, aerobic, pH neutral
40 C degrees temperature, anaerobic, pH acidic
40 C degrees temperature, anaerobic, pH basic
40 C degrees temperature, anaerobic, pH neutral

40 C degrees temperature, anaerobic, pH neutral

30

In which part of the alimentary canal are immunoglobulines taken up?

small intestine
large intestine
stomach
appendix

Small intestine

31

What causes the gastric emptying?

sympathetic stimulation

activity of the prepyloric part of antrum

pressure difference between duodenum and stomach

peristalsis of the fundus

Pressure difference between duodenum and stomach

32

Where does the digestion of cellulose in the rabbit take place?

stomach
small intestine
colon
cecum

Cecum

33

What substance in the piglet has a very low production in newborns but a relatively higher one at 2-3 weeks of age?

salivary amylase
enzymes of the small intestine
enzymes of the pancreas
pepsine

Salivary amylase

34

Where is the satiety centre?

in the prefrontal cortex
in the amygdala
in the nucl. ventrolateralis of hypothalamus
in the nucl. ventromedialis of hypothalamus

In the nucl. ventroMEDIALIS of the hypothalamus

35

Where does the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+ occur?

intestinum crassum
only in the ileum
both intestinum crassum and tenue
in the fore-part of intestinum tenue

In the fore-part of intestinum tenue

36

Which species has the largest stomach?

horse
cattle
swine
dog

Cattle

37

What is typical of saliva production in ruminants?

it is continuous

it is triggered only by feeding

aldosterone does not influence the composition of the saliva

stimulation of the tongue's mechanoreceptors is necessary for saliva production

It is continuous

38

What is the main mediator of the increase pancreatic secretion if the intestines contain large amounts of fat or peptide?

secretin
gastrin
CCK
transcorrine

CCK

39

What part of small intestine has primary pacemaker activity?

ileum
jejunum
duodenum
ileum and jejunum

Duodenum

40

Which statement is true for the plexus myentericus?

It controls the local circulation

it controls secretion

it controls absorption

it stimulates hormone production

It controls absorption

41

What increases the absorption of nutrients?

ovariectomy
low insulin level
filling of the digestive tract
increased temperature of the circulating blood

Ovariectomy

42

What is the composition of the eructated gas?

50% methane, 25% carbon-dioxide, 10% nitrogen, 5% oxygen

50% carbon-dioxide, 25% oxygen, 10% nitrogen, 5% methane

50% nitrogen, 25% carbon-dioxide, methane, 10%, 5% oxygen

50% carbon- dioxide, 25% methane, 10% nitrogen, 5% oxygen

50% carbon- dioxide, 25% methane, 10% nitrogen, 5% oxygen

43

How can phosphate and bicarbonate get into the primary saliva in ruminants?

through passive diffusion

through active secretion

by exocytosis

the primary saliva does not contain a significant quantity bicarbonate

Through active secretion

44

Where is absorbed the vitamin B12 in the alimentary tract?

stomach
ileum
duodenum
jejunum

Ileum

45

What is true for lecithin and cholesterol?

the lecithin is in the micelles

the cholesterol is in the outer sheath of the micelles

the cholesterol is amphoteric

the lecithin increases the dissolved amount of cholesterol in the micelles

the lecithin increases the dissolved amount of cholesterol in the micelles

46

9
Which bacterium does cellulose digest in the rumen?
Veilonella gasogenes
Bacterioides ruminicola
Bacterioides succinogenes
Bacterioides ruminantium

Bacterioides succinogenes

47

Which is the major control mechanism for gastric movement?

bulbus duodeni
intrinsic regulation
extrinsic regulation
hormonal feed-back

Intrinsic regulation

48

What material inhibits the contraction of nonstriated muscle of the jejunum?

secretin
cholecystokinin
GIP
gastrin

Secretin

49

Which pH helps the volatile fatty acids absorb?

neutral
acidic
basic
it is independent of the pH

Acidic (<7)

50

How much is the pH optimum of the pepsin?

8.2 - 8.6
1.3 -2.2
1.8 - 3.8
3.8 - 4

1.8 - 3.8

51

What is the task of apolipoprotein B48?

signalling the LDL

it is the activator of lipoprotein lipase in the wall of capillaries

it takes part only in the composition of micelles

it is a signal protein on the surface of "remnant" chylomicrones

It is a signal protein on the surface of "remnant" chylomicrones

52

How does the parasympathetic influence affect the gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells?

acetylcholine hyperpolarizes the cells

acetylcholine stimulates epinephrine action

acetylcholine depolarizes smooth muscles

acetylcholine hyperpolarizes arteriolar smooth muscles

ACh depolarizes smooth muscles

53

Which part of small intestine is emptied the slowest?

ileum
jejunum
duodenum
ileum and jejunum

Ileum

54

What is the pH in the small intestines ?

8,2-8,6
6,2-6,7
2,6-3,6
7,2-7,6

7,2-7,6

55

Where is a pacemaker of the intestine situated?

in the middle portion of the colon

in the beginning of caecum

in the beginning and end of caecum

in the beginning and end of colon

In the beginning and end of colon?

56

What kind of chemical mediator increases the bicarbonate concentration in the bile?

secretin
gastrin
CCK
GIP

Secretin

57

What happens with the saliva in the tubules of the salivary gland?

Na+ and Cl- are secreted and the K+ and HCO3- are partly reabsorbed

Na+ and Cl- are partly reabsorpted and the K+ and HCO3- are secreted

Na+ and K+ are partly reabsorpted and the Cl- and HCO3- are secreted

Na+ and HCO3 are partly reabsopted and the K+ and Cl- are secreted

Na+ and Cl- are partly reabsorpted and the K+ and HCO3- are secreted

58

Where do the carboxy-peptidases split?

on the C terminal
arginine or lysine containing bonds
tyrosine or phenylalanine containing bonds
phenylalanine, tyrosine and histidine containing bonds

On the C terminal

59

What is the main buffer in the colon of dogs and cats?

bicarbonate
phosphate
both bicarbonate and phosphate are important
ammonium

Phosphate

60

Where is the center responsible for chewing?

in the brain stem
in the nucl. Ventromedialis in the hypothalamus
in the cortex
in the spinal cord

In the brain stem (Trigeminal nerve)

61

What is the main mediator of the increased bicarbonate production of the pancreas?

secretin
gastrin
CCK
CCK and gastrin

Secretin

62

Which pH helps ammonia absorb?

neutral
acidic
basic
it is independent of the pH

Basic (>7)

63

In which animal family do we find an Oddi-sphincter?

carnivores
ruminants
monogastric herbivores
horses

Carnivores

64

How does glucose absorption occur in the small intestine?

With facilitated passive transport
with the support of GLUT 2 transporter
with calcium dependent secondary active transport
with simple diffusion

With calcium dependent secondary active transport

65

Is there fat digestion in the stomach of an adult mammals?

no, because the pH of the stomach does not allow this type of digestion

no, because the stomach does not produce fat cleaving enzymes

yes, very intensive fat cleaving occurs in the stomach

the G-lipase splits the fat in the stomach, but not to an significant extent

The G-lipase splits the fat in the stomach, but not to a significant extent

66

What statement is correct for the intestinal phase of gastric secretion?

it is regulated exclusively by the vagus nerve

somatostatin increases the stomach secretion

GIP, VIP, CCK and secretin inhibit the gastric function

CCK, VIP and secretin increase the gastric motility

GIP, VIP, CCK and secretin inhibit the gastric function

67

How many slow peristaltic waves occur per minute?

8-12
4-5
3-5
1-2

4-5

68

At which membrane potential are spike potentials produced?

5-15mV
3-12mV
-90mV
-40mV

-40mV

69

Which immunoglobulin is present in saliva?

IgA
IgD
IgE and IgM
IgG

IgA

70

What do the Entodinium species digest in the rumen?

chlorophyll
fat
amylose
cellulose

Chlorophyll

71

what group of animals has the fastest movement in the colon?

ruminants

carnivorous animals, because of aboral mass peristalsis

horses, because of the colon's antiperistaltic activity

herbivorous animals

Carnivorous animals because of aboral mass peristalsis

72

In ruminants where do light boluses end up?

to the dorsal sac of the rumen
to the ventral sac of the rumen
to the cranial sac of the rumen
to the reticulum

To the dorsal sac of the rumen

73

Where do immunoglobulines go after exocytosis?

into lymph and intercellular channels
into capillaries
into enterocytes
into the lumen of intestine

Into capillaries

74

What is the direct stimulus for secretin secretion?

inhibition of gastric emptying

high intraluminal pressure

low fat content in the small intestine

low pH in duodenum

Low pH in the duodenum

75

What is a secondary bile acid?

bile acids conjugated with taurine and glycine

dehydroxylated bile products by bacteria of the intestines

decarboxylated products in the intestines

cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid

Dehydroxylated bile products by bacteria of the intestines

76

What does the central nervous system consist of?

the plexus submucosus (Meissneri)

the plexus myentericus (Auerbachi)

the plexus submucosus

the plexus submucosus (Meissneri) and the plexus myentericus (Auerbachi)

The plexus submucosus and the plexus myentericus

77

Which phase is the suction phase of the reticulo- omasicum?

Phase 1
Phase 3
phase 2
phase 2-3

Phase 1

78

Which species has the largest proportion of gut in comparison to their body-length?

horse
swine
cattle
dog

Cattle (ruminents in general)

79

Do cats or dogs eat more frequently?

dogs, in one sitting they can eat more than 10% of their body weight

dogs eat more per body weight

cats eat more frequently, but eat less than dogs per body weight

no difference

Cats east more frequently, but eat less than dogs per body weight

80

What is the difference between serous and mucous saliva?

their composition is not significantly different

their viscosity differs

their electrolyte composition differs

they contain different enzymes

Their viscosity differs

81

What kind of Na+ transport is not found on the luminal side of the enterocyte?

Na+ - Cl- cotransport

cotransport of Na+ and other kinds of organic substances

absorption of Na+ by itself

Na+ -K+ antiport

Na+ -K+ antiport

82

Which factor enlarges the absorbing surface of the intestinal tract?

the surface of the intestinal tract as a tube

the folded nature of the inner surface of the intestinal tract

the presence of intestinal villi

the presence of the brush border

The presence of the brush border

83

Which reflex does not depend on the sympathetic ganglion?

defecation
gastric-colon
colon-gastric
intestine-colon

Defecation

84

Where can you find the bile canaliculi?

in the gall-bladder
in the sinusoids of the liver
in the perisinusoid fissures
between the two columns of hepatic cells

Between the two columns of hepatic cells

85

Where does the biphasic contraction of the reticulum send the light food contents of reticulum?

to dorsal sac of rumen
to ventral sac of rumen
to cranial sac of rumen
to caudal sac of rumen

Dorsal sac of rumen

86

Which material stimulates the cell division in the gut the most?

gastrin
secretin
GIP
CCK

Gastrin

87

What statement is correct for the cephalic phase of stomach secretion?

severing the n.vagus has no effect on it

it is mediated by peptide hormones

it is a CNS dependent reflex

chief cells are stimulated by this reflex

It is a CNS dependent reflex

88

where does the innervation of the rectum originate from?

sympathetic L1-L4, parasympathetic sacral sections

symphathetic L4-L6, parasymphathetic sacral section

sympathetic L1-L3, parasymphatic lumbar section

sympathetic L4-L6, parasympathetic lumbar section

Sympathetic L1-L4, parasympathetic sacral sections

89

What regulates the defecation in animals?

hypothalamus
hypophysis
hypothalamus and cortex
hypophysis and cortex

Hypothalamus

90

What initiates regurgitation?

expiration with closed glottis
expiration with an open glottis
rhytmic expiration and inspiration
inspiration with closed glottis

inspiration with closed glottis

91

How many bacteria can be found physiologically in 1 ml of ruminal fluid?

10 thousand
1 million
1 billion
10 billion

10 billion

92

What is the role of transcobalamin 2?

keeping cobalamin in the plasma

take cobalamin into the liver for excretion

take cobalamin into the cells

take cobalamin into the kidneys

Take cobalamin into the liver for excretion

93

What kind of secretion is produced during the cephalic phase by the pancreas?

high protein concentration but low quantity

low protein concentration but high quantity

high bicarbonate concentration

there is no pancreatic secretion during the cephalic phase

High protein concentration but low quality?

94

What best describes the gastric juice?

isosmotic
hyposmotic
hyperosmotic
its osmolarity depends on the foodstuff

Isoosmotic

95

What is the role of the motion of the intestinal villi?

passage of the chyme

they stimulate the brush border motion

they enlarge the absorptive surface

facilitating the movement of nutrients into capillaries and lymph vessels

Facilitating the movement of nutrients into capillaries and lymph vessels

96

What hormone increases the bicarbonate secretion of the pancreas?

secretin
GIP
VIP
stomatostatin

Secretin

97

Where is hunger center situated?

in the prefrontal cortex
in the amygdala
in the nucl. ventrolateralis of the hypothalamus
in the nucl. ventromedialis of the hypothalamus

In the nucl. ventroLATERALIS of the hypothalamus

98

Which immunoglobuline can get through the placenta?

IgG
IgA
IgM
IgD

IgG

99

Which process operates merely under the control of nervous system?

gastric secretion, gastric motion

gastric juice production

evacuation of bile

defecation

Defecation

100

What statement is correct for the gastric phase of secretion?

mechanical effects on G-cells stimulate it

it increases the gastric secretion hormonally

acetylcholine is the major inhibitor of this phase

the oxyntic cells do not have a function in this phase

It increases the gastric secretion hormonally

101

Which of the following is a brain- gut peptide?

gastrin
secretin
enteroglucagon
VIP

VIP

102

In the piglet there is a substance whose production is high in newborns but gradually disappears from the age of 2-3 weeks. What is it?

salivary amylase
lactase of the small intestine
saccharase
pepsine

Lactase of the small intestine

103

What does ptyalin split?

chain ending peptide bonds
alpha-1-4 glycoside bonds
alpha-1-6 glycoside bonds
beta-1-4 bonds

alpha-1-4-glycosidic bonds (straight starch chain)

104

In which part of the intestine does aldosterone increase the resorption of sodium?

small intestine
cecum
both in small and large intestines
only in the duodenum

Small intestine

105

Animals having this type of placenta recieve immunity of placental and colostral origin.

placenta epitheliochorialis
placenta syndesmochorialis
placenta endotheliochorialis
placenta haemochorialis

Placenta endotheliochorialis

106

Which species has the largest cecum?

horse
cattle
swine
rabbit

Horse

107

What ion is needed for the function of rennin?

Ca2+
Na+
K+
Mg2+

Ca2+

108

What is the main product of the cardia?

mucin
pepsinogen
gastrin
hydrochloric acid

Mucin

109

Where is the center of the reflex for gastric and colonic movements?

in the parasympathetic paravertebral ganglion

in the parasympathetic postvertebral ganglion

in the sympathetic paravertebral ganglion

in the sympathetic praevertebral ganglion

In the sympathetic prevertebral ganglion

110

Where does the chymotrypsin split?

on the C terminal
arginine or lysine containing bonds
tyrosine or phenylalanine containing bonds
phenylalanine, tyrosine and histidine containing bonds

Tyrosine or phenylalanine bonds

111

What does phospholipase A2 decompose?

it cleaves the esther bonds of triglycerides in position 1,3

it cleaves the lecithin

it cleaves cholesterol

it cleaves all kinds of fats

It cleaves the lecithin

112

Where does the reesterification of the fatty acids in the enterocyte occur?

in the sER
in the rER
in the cytoplasma
in the mitochondria

in the sER

113

What is the collective name of the endocrine cells in the intestine?

AFDS
EEC
APUD
GIP

APUD

114

Where are the inorganic parts of intestinal juice produced?

in the Lieberkühn glands

in the Brunner's glands
in the apical region of the intestinal villi
in the aged enterocytes

in the Lieberkühn glands

115

which bacterium does hemicellulose digests in the rumen?

Veilonella gasogenes
Bacterioides ruminicola
Lahnospira multiparus
Bacterioides ruminantium

Lahnospira multiparus

116

Which salivary gland produces serous saliva?

parotid gland
mandibular gland
Sublingual gland
the small scattered salivary glands

Parotid gland

117

Which part of the forestomach can be perforated by foreign objects?

the rumen
the reticulum
the abomasum
the omasum

The reticulum

118

What is not a condition of microbial digestion in the colon?

long retention time
acid secretion
adequate quantity of liquid
absorption of metabolic products

Acid secretion

119

What is the product of the Lieberkühn glands in the large intestine?

mucous cells
mucin and bicarbonate
digestive enzymes
water

Mucin and bicarbonate

120

In which animal is the bile continuously emptied?

horse
dog
ruminant
rabbit

Horse
ø gall bladder

121

In which species is microbial digestion a subordered role?

carnivores
omnivores
herbivores
ruminants

Carnivores

122

What is the potential change during slow waves?

5-15mV
1-5mV
90mV
40mV

5-15mV

123

How do the sympathetic fibres influence the gastrointestinal smooth muscles?

norepinephrine causes hyperpolarization

norepinephrine causes depolarization

peristalsis increases

muscle tone increases

Norepinephrine causes hyperpolarization

124

Which hormones are structurally related?

gastrin, CCK, VIP, GIP

VIP, GIP, enteroglucagon, substance P

motilin, somatostatin, CCK, VIP

secretin, GIP, VIP

Secretin, GIP, VIP

125

How can you describe the pressure in the esophagus?

the pressure in the cardia always exceeds the gastric tone

cardial tone is always larger than in esophagus

pressure of the esophagus exceeds the atmospheric pressure

the pressure of gastro-esopheagal sphincter exceeds the pressure in the cardia

The pressure in the cardia always exceeds the gastric tone

126

Which volatile fatty acid is formed mostly in the rumen?

propionic acid
acetic acid
butyric acid
oleic acid

acetic acid

127

What does pepsin digest?

every peptide bond

denatured peptides

peptide bonds of aromatic amino acids

peptide bonds of base amino acids

Peptide bonds of aromatic amino acids

128

Where are the monosaccharides absorbed the best?

in the jejunum

in the duodenum and the first part of the jejunum

in the ileum

in the jejunum and the first part of the ileum

In the duodenum and the first part of jejunum

129

What happens to the bile acids in the alimentary tract?

they are excreted entirely

most of them are reabsorbed passively

most of them gets fully degraded before getting to the rectum

most of them are actively reabsorbed

Most of it is actively reabsorbed

130

What does cholesterol esterase decompose?

it cleaves the ester bonds of triglycerides in position 1,3
it cleaves the lecithin
it cleaves cholesterol esters
it cleaves all kinds of fats

It cleaves the cholesterol esters

131

Where does the trypsin split?

on the C terminal

arginine or lysine containing bonds

tyrosine or phenylalanine containing bonds

phenylalanine, tyrosine and histidine containg bonds

Arginine or lysine containing bonds

132

How long do cattle spend on rumination in a day?

8 hours
15 hours
4 hours
2 hours

8 hours

133

How important is the brush border in the degradation of fats?

there is no enzymatic digestion bound to the brush border

digestion on the brush border is very important

digestion on the brush border is not significant

there is only digestion on the brush border

there is no enzymatic digestion bound to the brush border

134

How does fructose absorption proceed in the small intestine?

With facilitated passive transport
with the support of GLUT 2 transporter
with Na+ supported secondary active transport
with simple diffusion

With facilitated passive transport

135

What has an effect on the transformation of pepsinogen to active pepsin?

hydrochloric acid
hydrochloric acid and pepsin
hydrochloric acid and enteropeptidase
hydrochloric acid and the aromatic aminoacids

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin

136

In which phase of abomasal activity does the mixing occur?

phase 1
phase 2
phase 3
phase 1-2

Phase 3

137

What is the role of unicellular animals in the rumen?

the cellulose processing
the mechanical loosening of fodder fibres
the protein digestion
the fat digestion

the mechanical loosening of fodder fibres

138

How many neurons are there in the enteral nervous system?

less than in the CNS

about two times higher than in the CNS

ten times more than in the CNS

about the same as in the CNS

About the same as in the CNS

139

How does the composition of the pancreatic juice change during increased production rate?

HCO3- decreases, Cl- increases, Na+ does not change, K+ does not change

HCO3- increases, Cl- decreases, Na+ decreasee, K+ does not change

HCO3- increases, Cl- decreases, Na+ does not change, K+ does not change

HCO3- increases, Cl- decreases, Na+ does not change, K+ increases

HCO3- increases, Cl- decreases, Na+ does not change, K+ does not change

140

Where does the rumino-reticular groove direct the milk to?

to the abomasum
to the non-functioning forestomach
to the omasum
to the small intestines

To the abomasum

141

Which one of gastrointestinal peptides cause contraction of the bladder?

substance-P
CCK
endorphin
VIP

CCK (Cholecystokinin)

142

In which area of the stomach can C- cells be found?

cardia
fundus
pylorus
in the aglandular part

Pylorus

143

How can you describe the pressure when swallowing and in the swallowing pause?

In the swallowing pause the pressure in the pharynx is the same as the atmospheric pressure

when swallowing the pressure in the pharyngeal cavity suddenly drops

the tone of pharyngo- oesophageal sphincter is 5-10 kPa

when swallowing the pressure of oesophagus is larger than the pressure in the pharynx

In the swallowing pause the pressure in the pharynx is the same as the atmospheric pressure

144

In ruminants where do heavy boluses end up?

to the dorsal sac of the rumen
to the ventral sac of the rumen
to the cranial sac of rumen
to the reticulum

To the cranial sac of rumen

145

What do the Isotrichidae species digest in the rumen?

cellulose
protein
amylose
chlorophyll

Cellulose

146

What occurs due to a parasymphathetic stimulation in the salivary gland?

a large quantity of thin, protein poor saliva will be produced

the saliva production decreases

a small quantity of mucin rich saliva will be produced

a large quantity of mucin rich saliva will be produced

A large quantity of thin, protein poor saliva will be produced

The nerves release acetylcholine and substance P, which activate the IP3 and DAG pathways respectively.

147

What kind of proenzyme is stimulated directly by enteropeptidase?

pepsinogen
proelastase
chymotrypsinogen
trypsinogen

Trypsinogen

148

What enhances the emulsifying ability of bile acids?

lecithin
cholesterol
cholic-acid
the polyproteins

Lecithin

149

Which part of the rumen plays a leading role in mixing the contents of the reticulum?

dorsal and cranial sac of rumen
caudoventral and ventral sac rumen
cranial and caudal sac of rumen
dorsal and caudal sac of rumen

Dorsal and cranial sac of rumen

150

On which type of placenta can the largest quantity of maternal immunoglobulin get through?

placenta epitheliochorialis
placenta syndesmochorialis
placenta endotheliochorialis
placenta haemochorialis

Placenta haemochorialis

151

Where does the absorption of iron occur?

in the large intestine, intestinum crassum

only in the ileum

in all segments

in the duodenum and jejunum

In the duodenum and jejunum

152

Which receptors take part in the formation of the reflex of the rumino-reticular groove?

receptors of the pharyngeal wall and the oral cavity

esophageal receptors

ruminal receptors

cardial receptors

Receptors of the pharyngeal wall and oral cavity

153

What happens with parasympathetic stimulation in the acinus cells of the salivary gland?

discharged acetylcholine activates the cAMP system

the saliva production decreases

intracellular Ca2+ level decreases

discharged acetylcholine increases saliva production indirectly by stimulating bradykinin production

Discharged acetylcholine increases saliva production indirectly by stimulating bradykinin production

154

What is the role of the bicarbonate secretion of the colon?

buffering the high VFA content

buffering of bile acids

prevention of hydrogen loss

mechanical protection by complex formation with proteins

Buffering the high VFA content (volatile fatty acid)

155

What occurs with sympathetic stimulation of the salivary gland?

a large quantity of thin, protein poor saliva will be produced

the saliva production increases

a small quantity of mucin rich saliva will be produced
a large quantity of mucin rich saliva will be produced

A large quantity of thin, protein poor saliva will be produced

The nerves release norepinephrine, which is then received by β-adrenergic receptors on the acinar and ductal cells of the salivary glands, leading to an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and the corresponding increase of saliva secretion

156

Why does the passage time elongate in adult monogastric herbivores?

because of the microbial fermentation in the forestomach

because the stomach enlarges compared to the other parts of the digestive tract

because of the pseudo- coprophagy

because of the long time spent in the colon

Because of the long time spent in the colon

157

Which immunoglobuline is predominant on the mucous membranes of the intestine?

IgG
IgA
IgM
IgD

IgA

158

What is the task of apolipoprotein B100?

signaling the LDL
it is the activator of lipoprotein lipase in the wall of capillaries
it is the part of micelles
it is the part of "remnant" chylomicrones

Signaling the LDL

159

When will the mixing movements in the stomach begin?

as soon as the bolus is swallowed

about half an hour after food uptake

a few minutes after food uptake

2 - 3 hours after food uptake

About half an hour after food uptake

160

Which species receive maternal immunity exclusively via the placenta?

Primates
predators
ruminants
rodents

Primates

161

What is the task of apolipoprotein C?

signalling the LDL

it is the activator of lipoprotein lipase in the wall of capillaries

it is found only on micelles

it is found only on "remnant" chylomicrones

it is the activator of lipoprotein lipase in the wall of capillaries

162

Which species has the longest passage time?

cat
sheep
swine
dog

Sheep

163

How can sodium and chloride get into the primary saliva?

through passive diffusion

through active secretion

by exocytosis

the primary saliva does not contain a significant quantity of sodium and chloride

Through active secretion

164

Where are there no endocrine cells?

In the wall of stomach
In the wall of duodenum
In the wall of jejunum
In liver

In the liver

165

What is the stimulus that elicits eructation?

cardia contacts the foamy gas phase

cardia contacts the compact rumen content

the tension of dorsal sac and the cardia contacts the gas phase

the reticulum fills with gas

The tension of dorsal sac and the cardia contacts the gas phase

166

What is the role of transcobalamin 3?

keeping cobalamin in the plasma

take cobalamin into the liver for excretion

take cobalamin into the cells

take cobalamin into the kidneys

Take cobalamin into the cells

167

How long does the GI physiology of the newborn ruminants resemble that of the monogastric herbivores?

Until weaning period

3 weeks postpartum

until the blood concentration of volatile fatty acids are low

until the reflex of rumino-reticular canal can be provoked

3 weeks postpartum

168

In the piglet there is a substance whose production is very low in newborns and gradually increases from 2- weeks of age. What is it?

salivary amyalse
lactase in the small intestine
chloric acid
pepsine

Pepsine

169

What is a spike potential?

electric activity caused by slow waves

action potential of certain type of smooth muscle cells

membrane potential

contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells

Action potential of certain type of smooth muscle cells

170

Where is the appetite centre?

in the hunger centre

in the amygdala and in the prefrontal cortex

in the nucl. ventroateralis of hypothalamus

in the nucl. ventromedialis of hypothalamus

In the amygdala and in the prefrontal cortex

171

What and how does lipase split fats?

the result of this cleavage is two fatty acids and one 2- monoglyceride

it cleaves only the lecithin

it cleaves only the cholesterol esthers

it releases diglycerides

Two fatty acids and one 2-monoglyceride

172

Why do birds display coprophagia?

they display caecotrophia
it is pathological problem
it is a bad habit
to take up more vitamin and nitrogen

to take up more vitamin and nitrogen

173

How would you describe the secondary saliva in monogastric animals, with a normal excretion rate?

hypertonic
isotonic
hypotonic
its pH is below 3

Hypotonic

174

What's the basic material of bile acids?

cholesterol
taurine and glycine
amino acids
citric acid

Cholesterol

175

what species contains a high quantity of ptyalin in their saliva?

pig, rat, rabbit
horse, dog, cat ruminants
horse, pig, ruminants
pig, ruminants, dog

Pig, rat, rabbit

176

In which part of the intestines do glucocorticoids increase the resorption of Na+?

duodenum
large intestine
both in small and large intestines
only in the cecum

Both in small and large intestines

177

What is true for the endocrine regulation in the colon?

gastrin: stimulates; secretin, CCK: inhibit

gastrin, CCK: stimulate; secretin: inhibits

CCK: stimulates; secretin, gastrin: inhibit

secretin, CCK: stimulate; gastrin: inhibits

Gastrin, CCK: stimulate
Secretin: inhibit

178

Why do immunoglobulines stay intact after absorption?

intracellular digestion does not occur

intracellular digestion does occur but many molecules survive

lysosomal enzymes are not produced

exocytosis does not occur

Intracellular digestion does occur but many molecules survive

179

What does secretin inhibit?

secretion of gastric acid
secretion of pancreatic juice
secretion of cholic acid
secretion of intestinal juice

Secretion of gastric acid

180

Which species receive maternal immunity exclusively from the colostrum?

Primates
rodents
ruminants
predators

Ruminants (6 layers between mother and calf in placenta)

181

What causes the basal electric rhythm?

slow Ca2+ ion inflow

Ca2+ leakage

slow, periodic change of the activity of Na+/K + pump and presence of few Na+ and many Ca2+ channels

action potential

Slow, periodic change of the activity of Na+/K + pump and presence of few Na+ and many Ca2+ channels

182

What is the stimulus for closing the mouth?

gravity
streching of receptors of muscle
mechano receptors of mucous membrane
tone reduction

Stretching of receptors of muscle

183

What increases the emptying of the gall bladder?

VIP
CCK
secretin
epinephrine

CCK

184

Does the autonomic nervous system influence the gastrointestinal nervous system?

no

yes, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system have modulatory effect

yes, there is a sympathetic stimulation

yes, there is a parasympathetic inhibition

Yes, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system have modulatory effect

(They regulate it)

185

What happens due to a sympathetic effect in the salivary gland?

epinephrine decreases the saliva production via IP3

adrenergic nerve endings activate the cAMP-system

vasodilatation

intracellular Ca2+ level increases in the acinus cell

Adrenergic nerve endings activate the cAMP-system

186

In which area of the stomach can chief cells be found?

cardia
fundus
pylorus
aglandular part

Fundus

187

How does fructose transport occur in the gut?

with active transport
with the support of GLUT 5 transporter
with Na+ supported secondary active transport
with simple diffusion

With the support of GLUT 5 transporter

188

How many hours is needed for the chymus to pass from the pylorus to the colon?

8-12
4-5
3-5
1-2

3-5

189

Which movement is more important in mixing of the intestinal chymus?

peristalsis
segmental movement
segmental movement and peristalsis
sphincter contraction

Segmental movement

190

Which is not controlled by intrinsic regulation?

secretion
peristalsis
mixing movements
defecation

Defecation

191

What is basal electric rhythm (BER)?

complex electric activity caused by slow waves

action potential of smooth muscle cells

membrane potential

contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells

Complex electric activity caused by slow waves

192

Which gastric area is richest in muscle elements?

corpus
fundus
antrum
pylorus

Antrum

193

What occurs in the esophageal part during regurgitation?

inspiration
expiration
apnoea
rythmic expiration and inspiration

Expiration

194

What portion of the gut in monogastric herbivores is the most developed?

stomach
colon and cecum
small intestine and cecum
colon

Colon and cecum

195

What function does not belong to the omasum?

decrease the particle size

enzymatic digestion

water and electrolyte absorption

transport between forestomach and abomasum

Enzymatic digestion

196

How does the glucose transport occur in the gut?

with active transport
with the support of GLUT 2 transporter
with calcium dependent secondary active transport
with simple diffusion

With the support of GLUT 2 transport

197

Where do the slow waves of the colon begin?

from the circular muscle layer and then spread to the longitudinal muscles

from longitudinal muscles and then spread to circular muscles

from both muscles at the same time

from longitudinal muscle and spreads only within this layer

From the circular muscle layer and then spread to the longitudinal muscles

198

What is the function of ferritin?

to absorb iron

to store and eliminate iron if it is in excess

ferritin is the precursor of transferrin

the reduction of iron

To store and eliminate iron if it is in excess

199

Which parts of alimentary canal is controlled mainly by the central nervous system?

initial and last section

small intestine

from stomach to rectum

small and large intestine

Initial and last section

200

Which salivary gland is missing in birds?

Parotid gland
Mandibular gland
sublingual gland
they have all of the glands but there is not ptyalin production

Parotid gland

201

What prevents the emptying of the gall bladder?

VIP
CCK
secretin
acetylcholine

VIP

202

How much is the frequency (/min)of the segmenting movements of the small intestine?
8-12
4-5
3-5
1-2

8-12

203

Which parts of alimentary canal is mainly under local control?

initial and last section
small intestine
from stomach to rectum
small and large intestine

From stomach to rectum

204

Which special component is present in adult ruminants?

iodine, heavy metals
lysosymes
urea
lipase

Urea

205

Where is the center of the saliva production?

in the hypothalamus
in the nucl. salivatorius
in the cortex
in the cervical segment of the spinal cord

In the nucl. salivatorius (PS)

206

What is the main buffer in the colon of horses and pigs?

bicarbonate
phosphate
both bicarbonate and phosphate are important
ammonium

Bicarbonate

207

Where does the pepsin split?

on the C terminal

arginine or lysine containing bonds

tyrosine or phenylalanine containing bonds

phenylalanine, tyrosine or histidine containing bonds

Phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine (aromatic amino acids)

208

Apolipoprotein E

Binding of chylomicron remnant to liver-like receptors

209

Apolipoprotein C2

Activator of lipoprotein lipas present in the wall of capillaries

210

Apolipoprotein B48

Structure and secretion of chylomicron

211

Apolipoprotein B100

Structure and secretion of VLDL, ligand for LDL

212

Apolipoprotein A1

On surface of HDL, activates LCAT enzyme (which turns cholesterol into cholesterol ester)

213

VLDL

Carries C-, E-, B100 apolipoprotein
Enters blood stream from liver, binds to C receptors on capillary endothel

214

IDL

Binds to the B10p receptor in the liver, turns into LDL which is protein rich, and it loses its Apolipoprotein E ligand

215

LDL -complex

Important cholesterol source for extrahepatic tissues, binds to the cell through a special B100 receptor. The cells cholesterol synthesis decreases and the cholesterol from LDL is stored as cholesterol ester. The LDL (B100) receptor on the cell stops expressing

216

HDL

Prevents over-accumulation of cholesterol. Carries apolipoprotein A1 which activates the LCAT, which turns cholesterol into cholesterol ester which is taken up by the liver