Midterm 3 Respiration Flashcards Preview

Physiology MCQ > Midterm 3 Respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm 3 Respiration Deck (92)
Loading flashcards...
1

Which vessel provides the lung's functional circulation?

a. pulmonalis
aa. bronchiales
vv. pulmonales
v. azygos.

A. pulmonalis

2

Which artery supplies nutrients to the lung?

a. pulmonalis
aa. bronchiales
a. carotis communis
v. azygos

aa. bronchiales

3

Which part of the lung circulation is influenced by gravitation the most?

ventral
medial
dorsal
the gravitation does not influence the circulation of the lung

Ventral

4

How does hypoxia influence the lung circulation?

hypoxia does not influence the lung circulation

vasodilation occurs in poorly ventilated alveoli

vasoconstriction of well ventilated alveoli compensates for hypoxia

local vasoconstriction excludes poorly ventilated alveoli from perfusion

Local vasoconstriction excludes poorly ventilated alveoli from perfusion (constriction instead of vasodilation)

5

In which manner does the parasympathetic innervation influence the pulmonary vessels?

dilation via vagal mediation

inhibition of acetylcholine release

alpha-recepror stimulation

beta-receptor inhibition

Dilation via vagal mediation

6

How does the sympathetic innervation influence the pulmonary vessels?

the epinephrine inhibits dilation via beta- receptors

the sympathetic noradrenergic fibres inhibit alpha-receptors

the epinephrine dilates vessels via alpha-receptors

inhibition by sympathetic cholinergic fibres

The sympathetic noradrenergic fibres inhibit alpha-receptors (vasoconstriction)

7

What is the effect of the increased pulmonary arterial blood pressure on the pressure in the lung circulation?

it increases
it does not influence
it decreases
it increases considerably

It decreases

8

Which of the following functions is not typical of the nose cavity?

dissipation of heat
air conditioning
protection
creation of sound

Creation of sound

9

What is the role of the larynx?

protection
creating sound
dissipation of heat
air conditioning

Creating sound

10

What is the role of the pharynx?

protection
creating sound
dissipation of heat
air conditioning

Protection

11

What is the role of the alveolus?

air conditioning
dissipation of heat
gas exchange
conduction of air

Gas exchange

12

Where does the gas exchange occur?

in the windpipe
in the bronchus
in the bronchiolus
in the alveolus

In the alveolus

13

How many major layers separate the air from the blood in the alveolus?

4
2
5
3

4

14

What is the role of the T2 type pneumocytes?

gas exchange
surfactant production
barrier from the O2 and the CO2
it constitutes the skeleton of the alveolus

Surfactant production

15

Which is that anatomical unit in large animals which is responsible for inspiration?

m. intercostales externi
stomach muscles
diaphragm
m. intercostales interni

Diaphragm

16

In what kind of respiration do the abdominal muscles play a role?

normal expiration
normal inspiration
forced inspiration
forced expiration

Forced expiration

17

What causes the process of expiration?

mainly the collapsing tendency of the lung issue

active muscle work

passive pressure from the abdominal cavity

the contracting of the active elements of the lungs

Mainly the collapsing tendency of the lung tissue

18

What prevents the complete collapsing of the lungs?

the pressure relations in the lungs

the adhesion forces between the parietal and visceral plates of the pleura

ligaments of the lungs

the muscle elements of the lungs

The adhesion forces between the parietal and visceral plates of the pleura

19

Which parts of the lungs are aired better?

the areas being in the vertex

the areas being under the vertebral coloumn

the diaphragmatic and the parietal parts of lungs

the medial parts of the lungs

The diaphragmatic and the parietal parts of the lungs (more easily dilated)

20

What is the functional residual capacity?

the amount of air remaining in the lungs during apnea (pause)

the volume of air which can be inhalated in a forced way

that fraction which cannot be expirated even in a forced way

that quantity of air which remains in the lung after full compression

The amount of air remaining in the lungs during apnea (FRC)

21

What is the inspiratory reserve volume?

the amount of air remaining in the lungs during apnea

the volume of air which can be inhaled in a forced way

that fraction which cannot be expired even in a forced way

that quantity of air which remains in the lung after full compression

The volume of air which can be inhaled in a forced way (after relaxed inspiration)

22

What is the vital capacity?

the amount of air remaining in the lungs during apnea

Inspiratory reserve plus expiratory reserve plus
tidal volume

that fraction which cannot be expired even in a forced way

that quantity of air which remains in the lung after full compression

Inspiratory reserve plus expiratory reserve plus tidal volume (The maximal volume changes that can actively be attained)

23

Which air fraction stabilizes the composition of the alveolar air?

the expiratory reserve volume

the minimal air

the inspiratory reserve volume

the functional residual volume

The functional residual volume (FRC is approx. 5-8 times bigger than the fresh air inhaled, therefore the FRC
stabilizes the composition of the alveolar air, the partial pressure of gases is close to constant
here: this ensures the normal gas exchange in the lung)

24

Which is the formula on the basis of which the ventilation coefficient can be calculated?

(respiratory reserve - dead space) / functional residual volume + dead space

(respiration air + dead space) / functional rest air - dead space

(vital capacity - dead space) / minimal air + dead space

(tidal volume - dead space) / vital capacity - dead space

(respiratory reserve - dead space) / functional residual volume + dead space

25

TLC

Total lung capacity
- the total maximal air volume of the lung

26

VT

Volume tidal
- respiratory air
The quantity of air taken in and out during relaxed inspiration and expiration

27

FRC

Functional residual capacity
- the total air quantity remaining in the lung during pause (apnea).

28

IRV

Inspiratory reserve volume
- the volume of air that can forcibly be inhaled after relaxed inspiration

29

ERV

Expiratory reserve volume
- the volume of air that can forcibly be exhaled after relaxed expiration

30

RV

Residual volume
- residual air. The fraction which cannot be eliminated
from the lung even by forced expiration

31

VC

Vital capacity. The maximal volume changes that can actively be attained.

32

FVC

Forced vital capacity
VC = VT + IRV + ERV

33

What is the physiological dead space?

sites which are not covered by respiratory epithelium

the sum of non- functioning spaces plus anatomical dead space

the anatomical dead space is always larger than the physiological dead space

the physiological dead space is smaller then the anatomical one if the ventilation improves

The sum of non-functioning spaces plus anatomical dead space

34

What is true for panting?

alkalosis can develop

the slow central flow rate provides the suitable gas exchange

parietal and axial air flow prevent alkalosis

the fast parietal flow prevents alkalosis

Parietal and axial air flow prevents alkalosis

35

What is the role of the panting?

it secures the acid- base balance
to ensure more efficient breathing
getting rid of water
heat dissipation

Heat dissipation

36

What are the pressure relations during inspiration?

the pressure in the lungs decreases under the atmospheric pressure because of the active work of inspiratory muscles

the pressure in the lungs decreases under the atmospheric pressure because of the relaxing of inspiratory muscles

the pressure in the lungs decreases under the intrapleural pressure

the intrapleural pressure increases above the resting level

The pressure in the lungs decreases under the atmospheric pressure because of the active work of inspiratory muscles

37

What are pressure relations during expiration?

the intrapleural pressure decreases below its resting value

the intrapulmonary pressure increases above the atmospheric level

the intrapleural presure increases above the atmospheric level

the intrapleural pressure decreases below resting level

The intrapulmonary pressure increases above the atmospheric level

38

What is the essence of the Müllers experiment?

the forced expiration - if the epiglottis is closed - increases the intrapulmonary and intrathoracic pressures

it has physiological importance in the process of defecation

the intrapulmonary and thoracic pressures decrease considerably during deep inspiration

the expiration after the closing of the epiglottis decreases the intrapulmonary and intrathoracic pressure

The intrapulmonary and thoracic pressures decrease considerable during deep inspiration

39

What is true for the Valsava experiment?
the forced expiration - if the epiglottis is closed - increases the intrapulmonary and intrathoracic pressures

it has physiological importance in the process of rumination

the intrapulmonary and thoracic pressures decrease considerably during deep inspiration

the expiration after the closing of the epiglottis decreases the intrapulmonary and intrathoracic pressure

The forced expiration - if the epiglottis is closed - increases the intrapulmonary and intrathoracic pressures (helps in rumination)

40

Which component of respirational work is the most important?

overcoming the surface tension of alveoli

overcoming the frictional resistance

overcoming the elastic resistance of the lung

overcoming the viscous resistance of the chest

Overcoming the surface tension of alveoli

41

What makes the alveolus collapse?

intrapulmonary pressure
surface tension
surface tension of neighbouring alveolus
surfactants

Surface tension

42

What works against the collapse of the alveolus?

surface tension
elastic elements
surface tension of nearby alveoli
lack of surfactant

Surface tension of nearby alveoli

43

What is the transmural pressure?

the pressure between the two pleural plates

the sum of forces that cause the lung to collapse

the sum of forces that cause the lung to dilate

it is the 2/3 of the transpulmonal pressure and keeps balance with the surface tension

It is the 2/3 of the transpulmonal pressure and keeps balance with the surface tension

44

What is the result of the lack of DPPC?

the small alveoli collapse

the size of the large alveoli does not change

all alveoli collapse

the diameter of the alveoli increases

The small alveoli collapse

45

DPPC

Dipalmytoil Phosphatidile
Choline + Peptides

A major constituent of many pulmonary surfactants

46

How does the surface tension change during inspiration and expiration?

the surface tension continuously increases during inspiration

the surface tension continuously decreases during inspiration

the surface tension decreases during expiration

the surface tension does not change during the breathing cycle

The surface tension continuously decreases during inspiration

47

Which parameter describes the effectiveness of breathing?

ventilation

perfusion

ventilation coefficient

the difference between ventilation and perfusion

Ventilation coefficient

48

How many ml of oxygen dissolves in 1 liter of plasma at 37°C / 1 mmHg?

0.3 ml
0.03 ml
7 ml
0.7 ml

0.7 ml

49

How many ml of carbon dioxide dissolves in 1 liter of plasma at 37°C / 1 mmHg?

0.3 ml
0.03 ml
7 ml
0.7 ml

0.03 ml

50

Which of the following parameters do not influence the gas exchange?

temperature and water vapour

partial pressures

the membrane permeability

the size of exchanging surface

Temperature and water vapour

51

What is true for the alveolar air?

gas pressures in it equals the atmospheric gas pressures

the value of pO2 and pCO2 is constant

during ex- and inspiration its composition always changes

its gas composition is a function of the gas composition of the alveolar capillary

The value of pO2 and pCO2 is constant

52

How much time does it take for gases to exchange in the alveolus?

20 msec
600 msec
800 msec
200 msec

200 msec

53

What is true for the gas exchange in tissues?

increasing metabolism of a cell increases oxygen diffusion to this cell

the partial pressure of CO2 does not influence the diffusion of CO2

the partial pressure of oxygen is higher intracellularly than the pCO2

in the venous capillary blood the pO2 is higher than the pCO2

Increasing metabolism of a cell increases oxygen diffusion to this cell

54

What is true for oxygen transport?

one Hb molecule can bind two oxygens

the oxygen binding of Hb is reversible

1 liter blood can bind volume of 12% O2

the O2 affinity of the Hb does not change physiologically

The oxygen binding of Hb is reversible

55

How does the oxygen saturation curve of the hemoglobin look like in respect to increasing pO2?

it is linear
it is a simple saturation curve
it is sigmoid saturation curve
it is hyperbolic

It is sigmoid saturation curve

56

What is the arterio-venous oxygen difference?

it is the measure of O2 saturation in arteriovenous anastomosis

it increases in rest

it is the difference of minimal O2 saturation and maximum venous saturation

it is the difference between arterial blood maximum O2 saturation and venous blood minimum O2 saturation

It is the difference between arterial blood maximum O2 saturation and venous blood minimum O2 saturation

57

What shifts the O2 saturation curve to the left?

2,3 DPG concentration decrease
tissue pCO2 increase
pH decrease in the tissues
increase of tissue temperature

2,3 DPG concentration decrease

58

At which pO2 is Hb half saturated?

40 mmHg
30 mmHg
95 mmHg
24 mmHg

30 mmHg

59

How much of the carbon dioxide produced by tissues gets into the red blood cells?

70 %
20 %
90 %
100 %

90%

60

How much carbon dioxide is transported in form of carbamino-hemoglobin?

70 %
1%
10 %
20 %

20%

61

In which form is most of the carbon dioxide transported in the blood?

bicarbonate anions
carbamino-hemoglobin
physically dissolved
linked to plasma- proteins

Bicarbonate anions

62

What speeds up bicarbonate formation in the red blood cells?

high CO2 concentration
the presence of deoxy-hemoglobin
decreasing activity of carbonic anhydrase
the potassium efflux from red blood cells

The presence of deoxy-hemoglobin

63

What is true for the "Hamburger-shift"?

the capnophorine transporter inhibits the exchange of bicarbonate to chloride

the chloride follows water migration and the blood cell volume decreases

the capnophorine transporter stimulates the exchange of bicarbonate to chloride

it forms a buffer system

the capnophorine transporter stimulates the exchange of bicarbonate to chloride. Since potassium cannot cross the RBC membrane to establish electroneutrality. Cl goes out using the transporter.

64

Where is the pCO2 the highest?

in arterial blood
in the alveolar air
in the atmospheric air
in the venous blood

In the venous blood

65

What is the Haldane effect?

the high pO2 stimulates the CO2 dissipation gradually

the high pCO2 prevents the loss of O2

the dissociation curve of CO2 in lungs shifts to the right

the rising pO2 increases CO2 binding to proteins

The high pO2 stimulates the CO2 dissipation gradually.

(the high oxygen tension in the lung increasingly stimulates the release of carbon dioxide)

66

What is the effect of the pontine dissection?

irregular cycles of expiration and inspiration

deep prolonged inspirations

expiration and inspiration stops

normal respiratory cycle is maintained

Deep prolonged inspirations

67

APC

Apneustic center
responsible for normal rhythm of respiration

68

PNC

Pneumotaxic cente
inspiration-inhibiting center

(according to the latest hypothesis, it is also responsible for the regulation of the switch between inspiration and expiration)

69

What is the function of the DRG (dorsal respiratory group)?

it is a primary inspiratory center, inhibits the expiratory center

it stimulates the inspiratory center indirectly

it is a secondary expiratory center

it inhibits the switching over of expiration to inspiration

It is a primary inspiratory center, inhibits the expiratory center

70

What is the function of the VRG (ventral respiratory group)?

it stimulates inspiration

it is a secondary expiratory center inhibiting the inspiratory center

it is responsible for the switching over from inspiration to expiration

it is the a primary inspiratory center

It is a secondary expiratory center inhibiting the inspiratory center

71

What is the Hering- Breuer reflex?

a reflex that stimulates inspiration

a reflex of the lung stimulating the apneustic center

a reflex that starts in the lung and inhibits inspiration

it is a reflex that stimulates the n. phrenicus

A reflex that starts in the lung and inhibits respiration

Cutting the vagus: deep inspiration and then a sudden
expiration (it is a
mechanoreceptive reflex, activated by the dilation of lung): it is also called an inspiration inhibiting reflex

72

How does respiration change during severe pain?

respiration becomes irregular
respiration becomes deeper
frequency of respiration increases
expiration stops temporarily

Expiration stops temporarily

73

How is the efferentation of inspiration organized?

facilitation of n. phrenicus

stimulating of expiratory muscles

inhibition of the diaphragm

stimulating of innervation of musculi intercostales interni

Facilitation of n.phrenicus
(inhibition of expiration)

74

How is the efferentation of expiration organized in resting conditions?

facilitation of n. phrenicus

efferentation is not needed

stimulation of mm. intercostales externi

inspiratory muscles are prevented actively

Efferentiation is not needed

75

What kind of changes do the central receptors of the respiratory regulation register?

pO2 in blood, liquor cerebrospinalis and H+ ions in the blood

pO2 and H+ ions in the liquor

pCO2 and concentration of H+ ions in the liquor and in the blood

concentration of CO2 and H+ ions in blood

pCO2 and concentration of H+ ions in the liquor and in the blood

76

Which centers are stimulated by the central gas receptors?

expiratory center
pneumotaxic center
respiratory center of VRG
respiratory center of DRG

Respiratory center of DRG

77

How does the pCO2 in blood influence the activity of DRG?

getting in the cerebrospinal fluid it causes decrease in the pH as well as the direct effect becomes operative

via the indirect increase of the pH

direct effect on DRG

indirect effect on the DRG

Getting in the cerebrospinal fluid causes a decrease in the pH as well as the direct effect becomes operative

78

What is the characteristic feature of peripheral gas sensors?

they react to the change of pCO2

they are sensitive mainly to the change of pO2

they are found in sinus aorticus and arcus aortae

it is sensitive solely to the change of pO2

They are sensitive mainly to the change of pO2

79

What is dyspnea?

respiratory pause
asphyxia
irregular respiration
normal respiration

Irregular respiration

80

What is apnea ?

asphyxia
irregular respiration
normal respiration
respiratory pause

Respiratory pause

81

What is the Biot-respiration?

approximately normal respiratory cycles are interrupted by longer apnea

gasping inspiration

deep and superficial respiration alternating occasionally with respiratory pause

quick, superficial respiration

Approximately normal respiratory cycles are interrupted by longer apnea

(Biot’s rhythm:
mostly during encephalitis or meningitis the normal breathing cycles are interrupted by a long apnea)

82

Which defensive reflex does the inhalation of toxic gases and vapours prevent?

sneezing
nociceptive apnea
coughing
diving reflex

Nociceptive apnea

(Mechanism: sudden break in breathing (apnea). Same reaction may happen in
intensive pain, or sudden cooling of back’s skin.)

83

Which defensive reflex is produced by mechanical and chemical stimulation of the mucous membrane of the upper conducting airways?

coughing
diping reflex
sneezing
nociceptive apnea

Sneezing

84

Which defensive reflex prevents choking?

nociceptive apnea
coughing
sneezing
combined swallowing apnea

Combined swallowing apnea

85

Which defensive reflex is produced by the stimulation of tracheobronchial area?

coughing
sneezing
nociceptive apnea
diving reflex

Coughing

86

BIRD
Which part of the air sac contains fresh air?

cranial group
caudal group
both the cranial and caudal groups
none of the above

Caudal group

87

BIRD
How does the countercurrent exchange system work in the respiration of birds?

blood and air flow side by side in one direction

the way of blood and air are not parallel

blood and air flow in the opposite directions in closely attached tubings

blood and air are separated only by one cell layer

Blood and air flow in the opposite directions in closely attached tubings

88

BIRD
In what direction the fresh air flow during inspiration in birds?

air gets from caudal air sacs to the parabronchi

parabronchi fill with stale air

air gets from cranial air sacs to parabronchi

fresh air gets to caudal air sac and to the parabronchi

Fresh air gets to caudal air sac and to the parabronchi

89

BIRD
In what direction does fresh air flow during expiration in birds?

from the caudal air sacs to the parabronchi

from caudal air sacs to the cranial air sacs

from the cranial air sac to the outside world

parabronchi fill with air, rich in CO2

From the caudal air sacs to the parabronchi

90

How much more O2 can be carried by the whole blood than by the plasma?

20 times more
70 times more
50 times more
10 times more

70 times more

91

Which statement is not true relating to the O2-binding of myoglobin?

it displays simple saturation curve

it binds O2 in a reversible way

it binds O2 weaker than the hemoglobin does

it stores O2 in the muscle tissue

It binds O2 weaker than hemoglobin does

92

What is true for the CO binding of the hemoglobin?

it is independent of temperature

it displays a sigmoid saturation curve

the binding is reversible

the binding is irreversible and of high affinity

The binding is irreversible and of high affinity