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Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (69):
0

Define True Breeding.

If an organism has a certain characteristic

2

Define Allelle.

One of a pair of genes that occupies the same position on homologous chromosomes.

3

Define Genotype.

Two letter set that represents the alleles an organism possesses for a certain trait.

4

Define Phenotype.

The observable expression of an organism's genes

5

Define Homozygous Genotype.

A genotype in which both alleles are identical.

6

Define Heterozygous genotype.

A genotype with two different alleles.

7

Define Dominant allele.

An allele that will determine phenotype if just one is present in the genotype.

8

Define recessive allele.

An allele that will not determine the phenotype unless the genotype is homozygous in that allele.

9

Define Monohybrid cross.

A cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait.

10

Define Dihybrid cross.

A cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits.

11

Define Immutability of species.

The idea that each individual species on the planet was specially created by God and could never fundamentally change.

12

Define Macroevolution.

The theory that natural selection can, over time, take an organism and transform it into a more specialized species of that organism.

13

Define Microevolution.

The theory that natural selection can, over time, take an organism and transform it into a more specialized species of that organism.

14

Define Strata.

Distinct layers of rock.

15

Define fossils.

Preserved remains of once-living organisms.

16

Define Structural Homology.

The study of similar structures in different species.

17

Define Population.

A group of interbreeding organisms coexisting together.

18

Define ecosystem.

An association of living organisms and their physical environment.

19

Define biome.

A group of ecosystems classified by climate and plant life.

20

Define community.

A group of populations living and interacting in the same area.

21

Define biomass.

A measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular region.

22

Define ecological pyramid.

A diagram that shows the biomass of organisms at each trophic leve.

23

Define Greenhouse effect.

The process by which certain gases (principally water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane) trap heat that would otherwise escape the earth and radiate into space.

24

Define Nitrogen fixation.

Converts nitrogen gas into chemically active molecules that many organisms can use.

25

Define invertebrates.

Animals that lack a backbone.

26

Define vertebrates.

Animals that possess a backbone.

27

Define collar cells.

flagellated cells that push water through an organism.

28

Define Amoebocytes.

Cells that move using pseudopods.

29

Define Epidermis.

Outer layer of cells designed for protection.

30

Define Mesenchyme.

Jellylike substance that separates the epidermis from the inner cells.

31

Define spicules

Made of lime or silica, hard.

32

Define spongin

Made of protein, soft.

33

Define nematocysts

Small capsules that contain a toxin which is injected into prey or predators.

34

Define Epithelium.

Outer layer of cells designed for protection.

35

Define Mesoglea.

Separates the epithelial cells.

36

Define regeneration.

The ability to regrow a missing part of the anatomy.

37

Define True breeding.

If an organism has a certain characteristic that is always passed on to its offspring, we say that this organism bred true with respect to that characteristic.

38

Define Autosomal inheritance.

Inheritance of a genetic trait not on a sex chromosome.

39

Define posterior end.

The end of an animal that contains its tail.

40

Define anterior end.

The end of an animal that contains its head.

41

Define transpiration.

Evaporation from the leaves of a plant.

42

Define hermaphroditic.

Possessing both the male and female reproductive organs.

43

Define Mantle.

A sheath of tissue that encloses the vital organs of a mollusk, makes the mollusk's shell, and performs respiration.

44

Define ganglia.

Masses of nerve cell bodies.

45

What does it look like if you cross a female heterozygous in the hemophilia gene, with a male also carrying the hemophilia gene?

[img=http://sctritonscience.com/Wilson/biolog11psa.gif] 50% will have hemophilia, 50% will not.

46

What is the philosophy of Neo-Darwinism?

That mutations assisted in evolution, adding to the genetic code, when, in reality, they can only remove.

47

What is the philosophy of Punctuated Equilibrium?

That evolution accelerated over time, mutations growing more and more drastic.

48

What did Darwin prove?

Microevolution.

49

Name the four cycles we covered in Module 10.

Water, Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen.

50

What is global warming?

Too much greenhouse effect.

51

What creatures inhabit Phylum Porifera?

Sponges.

52

What two forms do Cnidarians take?

Polyp and medusa.

53

Name three examples of inhabitants of Phylum Cnidaria.

Sea anemones, Hydra, and jellyfish.

54

What characteristics do all Cnidarians share?

They all have an epithelium, mesoglea, radial symmetry, tentacles, mouth, a saclike gut, and nematocysts.

55

What phylum does a sponge belong in?

Phylum Porifera.

56

What phylum does a Hydra belong to?

Phylum Cnidaria.

57

What phylum does an earthworm belong to?

Phylum Annelida.

58

What phylum does a snail belong to?

Phylum Mollusca.

59

What phylum does a tapeworm belong to?

Phylum Platyhelminthes.

60

What phylum does Trichinella Spiralis belong to?

Phylum Nematoda.

61

What phylum does a sea anemone belong to?

Phylum Cnidaria.

62

What phylum do clams and oysters belong to?

Phylum Mollusca.

63

What phylum does a jellyfish belong to?

Phylum Cnidaria.

64

What is the difference between a univalve and a bivalve creature?

The number of shells. Univalve- one. Bivalve-two.

65

What are the Mendelian Genetic Principles?

1. The traits of an organism are determined by its genes.
2. Each organism has two alleles that make up the genotype for a given trait.
3. In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes only one of its alleles to its offspring.
4. In each genotype, there is a dominant allele. If it exists in an organism, the phenotype is determined by that allele.

66

Name 3 examples of mutualism.

Oriental sweetlips and Blue-Streak wrasse, Clownfish and sea anemone, Blind shrimp and Goby.

67

Who were Darwin's influences? (2)

Malthus- struggle for survival.
Lyell- the present is the key to the past.

68

What are the different trophic levels?

Producers, Primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers.

69

What phenomenon in the Geological Column disproves evolution?

The Cambrian Explosion.