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Flashcards in Module 13 Deck (47):
0

What are vertebrae?

Segments of bone or some other hard substance that are arranged into a back bone.

1

What is a notochord?

A rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a creature's body, providing the majority of its support.

2

Which types of backbones have a dorsal nerve cord?
A. Vertebrae
B. Notochord
C. Both

C. All have a dorsal nerve cord.

3

What are the three subphyla and their definitions in Phylum Chordata?

Urochordata- notochord through the larva stage
Cephalochordata- notochord throughout whole life
Vertebrata- notochord during early development, which becomes a true backbone.

4

What is an example of subphylum Urochordata?

Sea Squirt.

5

What is an example of phylum Cephalochordata?

Lancelet.

6

What is a endoskeleton?

A skeleton on the inside of a creature's body, typically composed of cartilage.

7

What is a bone matrix?

A hard substance on the outside of the bone.

8

What are the three types of living cells in bone and their purposes?

Osteoblasts- produces the bone matrix
Osteocytes- mature bone cells surrounded by the bone matrix
Osteoclasts- break down bone tissue

9

What is compact bone tissue?

Calcium-hardened fibers packed tightly together

10

What is spongy bone tissue?

Fibers packed loosely.

11

What are both types of bone tissue composed of?

Collagen mixed with calcium-containing salts tht harden the tissue.

12

What texture does the collagen mixture that composes bone tissue give the bone?

A hard, rock-like feel.

13

Where are osteocytes found?

In bone tissue.

14

What is the periosteum?

A dense membrane surrounding the bone.

15

What is bone marrow?

A soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells.

16

What are the two major sections of the endoskeleton?

The axial skeleton- supports and protects head, neck, trunk, vertebral column (backbone), ribs and skull.
The Appendicular skeleton- attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it.

17

What is a closed circulatory system?

A circulatory system in which the oxygen-carrying cells never leave the blood vessels.

18

How many chambers can the heart of a member of subphylum Vertebrata have?

2-4

19

What is the path of the flow of blood in a closed circulatory system?

Heart -> arteries -> capillaries -> veins -> heart

20

What are arteries?

Blood vessels that carry the blood away from the heart

21

What are capillaries?

Tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells.

22

What are veins?

Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.

23

What is hemoglobin?

Protein, gives the blood its red color, and allows oxygen to be transported by the blood.

24

What contains hemoglobin?

Red blood cells.

25

What are the two colors blood can have, and what do they mean?

Bright red- oxygen rich
Dark red- oxygen poor

26

What is the main center of the nervous system?

The brain

27

How many lobes does the brain have, what are their names, and what do they do?

The brain has 5 lobes. These are:
Olfactory lobe- nose
Cerebrum- senses, responses
Optic- eyes
Cerebellum- involuntary and muscle movement
Medulla Oblongata- vital functions and transports signals to the spinal cord

28

What does the spinal cord do?

It sends signals to and from the brain.

29

What protects the spinal cord?

The vertebral column.

30

What does the spinal cord contain? And what are the two types?

Spinal nerves.
Sensory nerves- sense it
Motor nerves- act on it

31

What are the two types of fertilization?

Internal and external

33

What are the three types of egg development?

Oviparous development- egg hatched outside (bird)
Ovoviviparous development- egg hatched inside (guppies)
Viviparous development- placenta inside body of female (mammals)

34

Name 2 points about Class Agnatha, and give an example.

• Jawless Fish
• Anadromous- A life cycle in which creatures are hatched in freshwater, migrate to salt water as adults, and then return to freshwater to reproduce.
• Example- Lamprey

35

Name 3 points about Class Agnatha and give an example.

• Carilaginous fish
• Lateral Line
• Three dimension electrical field sensor
• Example- Shark.

36

Name 6 points about Class Amphibia.

• Dual Life
• Begin life in water
• Eggs develop outside of mother
• Larvae have gills
• Metamorphosis- air breathing respiration, fins disappear and legs appear
• Adult is an air-breathing, land-dwelling creature

37

Name 6 specific characteristics about Class Amphibia (particularly about their anatomy)

• Endoskeleton mostly bone
• Smooth skin (no scales)
• 2 pairs of limbs + webbed feet
• Up to 4 organs for respiration
• 3 chambered heart
• Oviparous with external fertilization

38

Name Class Amphibia's 4 breathing organs.

• Gills
• Lungs- backup
• Skin- main breathing organ
• Lining of the mouth

39

What is the definition of hibernation?

A state of extremely low metabolism and respiration, accompanied by lower-than-normal body temperatures.

40

How many chambers do members of class Amphibia have in their heart?

3.

41

What kind of blood does the left atrium of the heart of an amphibian hold?

Oxygen rich blood, from lungs, mouth, or skin, through the pulmonary vein.

42

What kind of blood does the right atrium of the heart of an amphibian hold?

Oxygen poor blood, from internal organs through the sinus venosus.

43

What kind of blood does the ventricle of the heart of an amphibian hold?

Oxygen rich and poor blood mixed from the atriums.

44

Follow the path of blood from the ventricle of an amphibian.

Ventricle -> conus arteriosus -> left and right truncus arteriosus -> carotid arches, aortic arches, pulmocutaneous arteries

45

Where does the blood from the carotid arches go?

To the head.

46

Where does the blood from the aortic arches go?

to the dorsal aorta.

47

Where does the blood from the pulmocutaneous arteries go?

The lungs, skin, mouth, to be reoxygenated.