What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H20 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
What 4 things does photosynthesis require?
Carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, and chlorophyll.
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Glucose and oxygen.
What are 2 ways to speed up a reaction?
1. The reaction could be performed at a higher temperature, or 2. Use a catalyst.
What is a catalyst?
A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction, but is not used up in the process.
What is an organic molecule?
A molecule that contains only carbon and one of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorus.
What is biosynthesis, and an example of it?
When a living organism takes small molecules and makes larger molecules. Example: Photosynthesis.
What are carbohydrates?
Organic molecules that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
What do carbohydrates and water have in common?
They both have the same ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms: 2:1.
What is an example of carbohydrates and its chemical formula?
What does the structural formula do?
It gives the type and number of atoms and which are linked to which.
What do chemical bonds do?
They link atoms together in a molecule.
What are a couple variations from the typical chemical bond?
Double bonds and triple bonds.
What are isomers?
2 different molecules that have the same chemical formula.
How are glucose and fructose different?
Glucose and fructose both have similar chemical formulas, but they have different structural formulas.
What are monosaccharides?
Simple carbohydrates that contain 3-10 carbon atoms.
What are disaccharides?
Carbohydrates that are made up of 2 monosaccharides.
What are polysaccharides?
Carbohydrates that are made up of 2+ monosaccharides.
What is a dehydration reaction?
A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water.
How are disaccharides and polysaccharides formed?
Monosaccharides combine to make disaccharides and polysaccharides through a dehydration reaction.
What is hydrolysis?
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water. The reverse of dehydration.
How do polysaccharides and disaccharides become monosaccharides?
What are two major groups in organic acids and bases?
The acid group and amine group.
What does an acid group look like?
C -- OH
What are the 3 areas on the pH scale and their locations?
Neutral (7), acidic (0 - just below 7), alkaline (14 - just above 7).
What is another name for lipids?
Fats, which are all hydrophobic..
What does the term hydrophobic mean?
Lacking any affinity to water.
What is a saturated fat?
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms.
What is an unsaturated fat?
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
What is the equation for making a lipid molecule + 3 water molecules (no chemical formulas or structures needed)?
Glycerol + 3 fatty acid molecules -> A lipid (fat) molecule + 3 water molecules.
What are proteins made from?
Mostly made from carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulfur.
What is a peptide bond?
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.
What determines the type of protein?
The type of atoms, the number of atoms, and the order determines the type of protein.
What are enzymes?
A special class of proteins that act as catalysts through the use of lock and key action.
What is DNA's full name?
What is DNA's shape?
A double helix.
What is DNA made up of?
Chemical units known as nucleotides.
What are the 3 basic components of nucleotides?
Deoxyribose, phosphate group (phosporus, hydrogen, and oxygen), and nucleotide base.
What are nucleotide bases main components?
Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.
What do nucleotide bases do?
They are responsible for the way DNA stores information.
Which of nucleotide bases chemical pair up with which?
Cytosine to guanine. Adenine to thymine.
What is hydrogen bonding?
A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms- keeps DNA in double helix.