Flashcards in Module 6 Deck (39):
What are the 3 functions cells must perform?
Absorption, Digestion, Excretion.
What are the three methods a cell can use to eliminate a substance?
Excretion, egestion, secretion.
What are 2 main funtions cells need to exist?
Homeostasis, and reproduction?
What are the 2 lesser functions cells need to exist?
Movement and irratability.
What is cytology?
The study of cells.
What organelles are in an animal cell?
Secretion vesicle, centrioles, Golgi Body, Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, smooth ER, rough ER, nucleus (chromatin, nucleolus), vacuole, mitochondrian, lysosome.
What organelles are in a plant cell?
Plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondrian, chloroplast, central vacuole, leucoplast, Golgi Body, vacuole, rough ER, nucleus (chromatin, nucleolus), smooth ER, ribosomes, cytoplasm.
What organelles do plant cells and animal cells have in common?
Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, smooth ER, rough ER, nucleus (chromatin, nucleolus), vacuole, Golgi body.
What organelles are specific to animal cells?
Lysosomes, and centrioles.
What kingdom's cells have cell walls?
Plant and bacteria cells.
What organelles are specific to plant cells?
Cell wall, chloroplasts, leucoplasts, and the central vacuole.
What are cell walls made of?
Cellulose and pectin.
What are pores in cell walls used for?
Nutrition and waste product secretion.
Name two special characteristics relating to cell walls found in some cells.
Secondary cell walls, and middle lamella.
What is the middle lamella?
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells.
Which kingdom's cells have plasma membrane?
Animal and plant cells.
What is the outermost layer in animal cells?
The plasma membrane.
Are cell walls solid or semipermeable?
What is cytoplasm?
Jelly-like fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
What is cytoplasmic streaming?
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cells's content.
What are mitochondria, and what are they responsible for?
They are the powerhouse of the cell and are responsible for reproduction.
What are the two main functions of the lysosome?
They are responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids, AND they are the cleaning crew, breaking down old worn out organelles.
What do ribosomes do?
They are responsible for protein synthesis (biosynthesis.)
What does the endoplasmic reticulum do?
It runs throughout the cytoplasm to maintain the cell's shape, and it aids in the transport of complex molecules.
What does the rough ER specialize in?
What does the smooth ER specialize in?
It makes lipids, and inactivates harmful byproducts of digestion and respiration and sends them to the plasmd membrane to be ejected.
What are the two main type of plastids, and what do they do?
Leucoplasts, which store starches, and Chromoplasts, which are used in photosynthesis.
What are chloroplasts, and what are they filled with?
A catalyst for photosynthesis, which is filled with stroma; a fluid inside chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place.
What does the central vacuole do?
It contains a high concentration of solutes, causing water to flow in through osmosis, the turgor pressure keeping the cell rigid.
What are the three types of vacuoles, and what do they do?
Central- keeps cell rigid by holding water
Waste- waste products of digestion (nontoxic)
Phagocytic- food substance too large
What are vesicles?
What does a pinocytic vesicle do?
It is formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.
What does a secretion vesicle do?
It holds secretion products to be transported to plasma membrane and released.
Golgi Bodies- what do they look like, what do they do, and what are they called?
They look like flattened interconnected pancakes, they store and change proteins and lipids into whatever the cell needs, they're a sort of "mailing service."
What do centrioles do?
They form flagella or cilia in cells with microtubules, and help with asexual reproduction.
What is the nuclear membrane?
A highly porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
What are chromatin?
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins.
What does the nucleolus do?
It makes RNA.