Mod 15,16,17 Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Mod 15,16,17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mod 15,16,17 Deck (45):
0

Learning

Org ament change in behavior due to experience

Touching stove and getting burned and not touching it again

1

Classical Conditioning

Type of learning where stimulus gains power to cause a response because it predicts another stimulus that already produces the response

2

Stimulus

Anything in the environment that one can respond to

The hot stove

3

Response

Any behavior or action

Jumping back from stove because you were surprised after you got burned

4

Behaviorism

View that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors

Only studying how people react

5

John Watson

Founder of behaviorism.

How people act and why

6

Cognition

All of the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering

Remembering your birthday

7

Unconditional stimulus

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that triggers a response automatically and reflexively

Being burned by stove

8

Unconditioned response

In classical conditioning, the automatic response to the unconditioned stimulus

Jumping back from the stove

9

Conditioned stimulus

In classical conditioning, a previous neural stimulus that has gained the power to produce a conditioned response

Answering a certain question after memorizing the answer easily

10

Acquisition

In classical conditioning the process ofo developing a learned response

Slowly remembering parts of the answer to the question from notecards

11

Extinction

In classical conditioning, the diminishing of a learned response

Forgetting the answer to the question after not being asked about it for a year

12

Spontaneous recovery

The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response

Suddenly remembering the answer after the year

13

Ivan Pavlov

Learning theorist famous for the discovery of classical conditioning

Dog saliva

14

Generalization

A process in which organism produces the same response to two similar stimuli

Dogs responding to the bell and clang

15

Discrimination

A process in which an organism produces different responses to two similar stimuli
Dogs responding to clang but not bell

16

Rosalie rayner

Graduate student of John Watson co researcher for little Albert expirement

Kid learning to respond with fear to loud noises

17

John Garcia

Identified the taste aversion which classical conditioning was influenced by biological predispositions

That dogs salivaited sooner and sooner after learning what was going to happen

18

Robert rescorla

Developed theory that emphasized the importance of cognitive processes in classical conditioning

19

Operant conditioning

A type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior

Positive encourages the dolphin to repeat while punishment makes the dolphin scared

20

Edward Thorndike

Author of the law of effect, the principle that forms the basis of operant conditioning

21

B F Skinner

Developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning

22

Reinforcement

Any consequence that increases the likelihood of a behaviour

Dolphin jumping then getting a fish, or pet , or not jumping and being ignored

23

Punishment

Any consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior

Ignoring the dolphin after it doesn't jump

24

Positive reinforcement

In operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with a desirable event of state

Giving the dolphin a smelt

25

Negative reinforcement

In operant conditioning, amything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state

Spanking the dog for tearing the carpet

26

Primary reinforcement

Something that is naturally reinforcing such as food, warmth, and water

Giving the dolphin a herring for jumping.

27

Secondary reinforcement

Something that you have learned to value, such as money

The babysitter gets money

28

Shaping

Reinforcement of behaviors that are more and more similar to the one you want to occur.

Getting paid more and more for babysitting

29

Discrimination

The ability to distinguish between two comparison signals or stimuli

Dolphin responding to one signal by jumping and another by waving

30

Continuos reinforcement

In operant conditioning a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct response

The dolphin getting a reward after every jump

31

Partial reinforcement schedule

In operant conditioning a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responses

A dolphin gets a reward sometimes it jumps

32

Fixed interval schedule

In operant conditioning a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of time

Potty training

33

Variable interval schedule

In operant conditioning a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of time

Putting away dishes

34

Fixed ration schedule

In operant conditioning rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responses

Learning notecards

35

Variable ratio schedule

In operant conditioning rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses

Putting laundry away

36

Latent learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until the learner has an incentive to demonstrate it

Math test

37

Cognitive map

A mental representation of a place

Remembering a place

38

Over justification effect

The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The reward may replace the persons original and natural motivation, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated.

Loving working with horses but only working to be paid

39

Observational learning

Learning by observing others

Dolphin learning by watching another dolphin

40

Model

The person observed in observational learning

The dolphin

41

Modeling

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

The dolphin watching then jumping when the signal is given

42

Albert bandura

Major figure in study of observational learning and other important topics

43

Antisocial behavior

Negative, destructive, unhelpful behavior

Dolphin biting

44

Pro social behavior

Positive, constructive, helpful behaviors

Dolphin playing