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Flashcards in Sensations Deck (39):
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Sensation

How we receive information about the world around us

Sights sounds touch

1

Bottom-up processing

Processing of information from sensory organs

Forming images from eyes

2

Perception

Our complete analysis of information recieved

Perception that you are looking at the sky

3

Top-down processing

Interprets information using past experiences and your expectations

Knowing from the past that what you are looking at is a ball

4

Absolute threshold

The minimum amount of stimulation needed to detect a certain stimulus.

The maker of perfume uses this to add or not add certain fragrances and how much.

5

Difference threshold

The least amount of change that a person can detect.

How long it takes for you to detect the light changing when dimming lights very slowly

6

Signal detection theory

Formulas or principles that predict how we will detect faint stimulus, and background stimulus.

Thinking you saw a bird when it was an inanimate object

7

Sensory adaptation

Failing to notice a constant and unchanging stimulus

Getting used to cold water and not noticing it

8

Selective attention

Focusing on one stimulus and ignore everything else

Getting so caught up in a book that all other sights and sounds disappear

9

Electromagnetic therapy

Way light enters the eyes and present electromagnetic radiation in environment

The visible light spectrum

10

Hue

Color of light determined by wave length and light energy

Red or orange colors

11

Cornea

Clear curved bulge on the front of the eye

Bends light waves

12

Iris

The colored tissue behind the cornea

Regulates size of pupil

13

Pupil

Center of the iris, controls amount of light entering the eye

Small to let less light in like when in bright sunlight, and large to let more in like when in the dark

14

Lens

Transparent structure behind the eye, changes thickness to focus on image

15

Retina

Processing center at the back of the eye

The film of the camera

16

Receptor cells

Change light energy into nerve impulses for the brain to interpret

Interpreter for a foreign speaking person

17

Rods

Detect only black and white and shades of gray

Respond only in dim light and like a night vision

18

Cones

Detect sharp detail and colors, cluster in the center of the retina

Like the hd effect

19

Fovea

Center of retina, where vision is the best

Where the cones cluster

20

Bipolar cells

Cells that form the middle layer in retina

A review that is taken up to be looked at and passed used later

21

Ganglion cells

Top layer of cells in retina that transmit information from bipolar cells through their axons.

Telephone wire

22

Optic nerve

Nerve that sends information from eye to occipital lobe in brain

Telephone wire

23

Blind spot

Where the optic nerve exits the eye due to no cones or rods

Like on a car

24

Trichromatic theory

Cones tuned to detect blue, red, and green light and that different levels of stimulus create many different combinations of these three colors to create many more different colors from the original three

Like when mixing colors to make more

25

Opponent process theory

Color is processed in opposite pairs like black and white pair, and light that stimulates one half hides or reduces the other half. Like only seeing one half of the moon and the other being dark

26

Pitch

The highness or lowness of a sound depending on the frequency

Like singing

27

Hertz

Number of sound wave peaks per second, or frequency, of a sound wave

Like when glass shatters from singing

28

Decibel

A measure of the hight of a sound wave which determines loudness of sound

A whisper has low decibel and a fire truck siren has high decibels

29

Auditory canal

Opening sound waves travel into ear for processing

Metal, unprocessed being put on conveyor belt

30

Eardrum

Tissue barrier at end of auditory canal transfers sound vibration from air to three tiny bones

Like a drum

31

Ossicles

Three tiny bones that transfers sound waves from eardrum to cochlea

Like structures that hold up buildings

32

Cochlea

Snail shaped, bony, fluid filled structure in ear where sound waves are changed to neural impulses

Like a balloon

33

Oval window

On surface of cochlea receives sound vibrations from three tiny bones

Like the canvas on drum

34

Hair cells

Receptor cells located in cochlea and change sound waves to neural impulses

Similar to the strings

35

Auditory nerve

Nerve that carries sound information from ears to temporal lobe of the brain

The strings on a violin

36

Olfactory cells

Chemical receptor cells for smell, located in nasal passages

Vacuum

37

Kinesthetic senses

System for sensing position and movement of individual body parts

Like the balancer on phone

38

Vestibular senses

System for sensing body orientation and balance

Like the balance on the phone