Flashcards in Moral Development Deck (29):
What are the three parts of morality?
cognition, affect and behavior
what is right or wrong and why
emotions that are involved
actions that people engage in
How is cognition usually measured?
presenting moral dilemmas
What are Kohlberg's three levels of morality?
Pre-conventional Morality, Conventional Morality and Post-conventional Morality
right and wrong is determined based on rewards and punishment
What are the two stages of Pre-conventional Morality?
1. Punishment and Obedience Orientation
2. Instrumental Exchange Orientation
Punishment and Obedience Orientation
focus on avoiding punishment
Instrumental Exchange Orientation
focus on whether something is worth the risk
focus on being a good person and maintaining social order
What are the two stages of conventional morality?
1. Good Boy/Girl Orientation
2. Social Order Orientation
Good Boy/Girl Orientation
win approval through being a good person
Social Order Orientation
Our duty to uphold law
right and wrong determined by abstract principals
What are the stages of Post-Conventional Morality?
1. Social Contract Orientation
2. Universal Ethics Principals Orientation
Social Contract Orientation
follow law when consistent with human rights
Universal Ethics Orientation
Laws irrelevant, uphold self-chosen right/wrong principals
What are the criticisms of Kohlberg's Morality theory?
morality doesn't have distinct stages, is not universal and does not develop late
18 month year olds observed a fair event (each giraffe given a toy) vs and unfair event (one giraffe got two toys and the other got none) and they looked longer at unfair event
internal regulatory mechanism that increases individual's ability to conform to conduct standards of culture
What are the two parts of the conscience?
1. knowing rules
2. emotional response to rule violation
children between 3 and 12 told to complete an impossible task and that they would get a prize if they did it, but only if they didn't cheat
What are the two parts to the conscience study?
Part 1: children allowed to try task and 60% tried without cheating
Part 2: children saw another cheat and get rewarded and then allowed to try again
What was observed in part 2 of the conscience study?
children under 6 cheated and those over 6 tried to follow rules
voluntary, intended to benefit another
When do children begin to help others?
How do we know children begin helping others at 18 months?
18 month olds will help adults when they are in need of help even if the adult doesn't necessarily ask