Moral Development Flashcards Preview

PSY 130: Developmental > Moral Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Moral Development Deck (29):
1

What are the three parts of morality?

cognition, affect and behavior

2

Cognition

what is right or wrong and why

3

Affect

emotions that are involved

4

Behavior

actions that people engage in

5

How is cognition usually measured?

presenting moral dilemmas

6

What are Kohlberg's three levels of morality?

Pre-conventional Morality, Conventional Morality and Post-conventional Morality

7

Preconventional Morality?

right and wrong is determined based on rewards and punishment

8

What are the two stages of Pre-conventional Morality?

1. Punishment and Obedience Orientation
2. Instrumental Exchange Orientation

9

Punishment and Obedience Orientation

focus on avoiding punishment

10

Instrumental Exchange Orientation

focus on whether something is worth the risk

11

Conventional Morality

focus on being a good person and maintaining social order

12

What are the two stages of conventional morality?

1. Good Boy/Girl Orientation
2. Social Order Orientation

13

Good Boy/Girl Orientation

win approval through being a good person

14

Social Order Orientation

Our duty to uphold law

15

Post-conventional Morality

right and wrong determined by abstract principals

16

What are the stages of Post-Conventional Morality?

1. Social Contract Orientation
2. Universal Ethics Principals Orientation

17

Social Contract Orientation

follow law when consistent with human rights

18

Universal Ethics Orientation

Laws irrelevant, uphold self-chosen right/wrong principals

19

What are the criticisms of Kohlberg's Morality theory?

morality doesn't have distinct stages, is not universal and does not develop late

20

Fairness Study

18 month year olds observed a fair event (each giraffe given a toy) vs and unfair event (one giraffe got two toys and the other got none) and they looked longer at unfair event

21

Conscience

internal regulatory mechanism that increases individual's ability to conform to conduct standards of culture

22

What are the two parts of the conscience?

1. knowing rules
2. emotional response to rule violation

23

Conscience Study

children between 3 and 12 told to complete an impossible task and that they would get a prize if they did it, but only if they didn't cheat

24

What are the two parts to the conscience study?

Part 1: children allowed to try task and 60% tried without cheating
Part 2: children saw another cheat and get rewarded and then allowed to try again

25

What was observed in part 2 of the conscience study?

children under 6 cheated and those over 6 tried to follow rules

26

Prosocial behavior

voluntary, intended to benefit another

27

When do children begin to help others?

18 months

28

How do we know children begin helping others at 18 months?

18 month olds will help adults when they are in need of help even if the adult doesn't necessarily ask

29

What causes an increase in prosocial behavior?

internalizing moral values, inhibition of self-centered behaviors, ability to plan other-centered behaviors