Flashcards in The Self Deck (35):
What are the three aspects of the self?
physical, continuity, evaluation
I am a physical entity separate from the world
I am the same person over time
I have particular qualities that make me unique and who I am
When does development of the self start?
3 months when infants realize they have an effect on their environment
What is the mirror task?
a dot was placed on infant's noses or forehead and they were placed in front of a mirror to see what they would do
What did the mirror task reveal?
By 2 years, children recognize themselves
What are some signs of self-awareness in toddlers?
self-conscious emotions, possessiveness, personal pronouns, referring to themselves by their name
What is Self-Concept
one's personal definition of oneself
How do toddlers describe themselves?
categories, physical attributes, possessions
Overall, toddlers self-concepts are in terms of what?
concrete observable things and they are overly optimistic
How do children form self concept?
Co-narration with parents: how stories are told affects self-concept
What are the sex differences in co-narration?
girl use more emotional language and boys are more likely to describe conflict
How does self-concept shift in elementary school?
children begin to engage in social comparison with other kids and the self becomes a social construct
What does Self concept look like in 8-11 year olds?
personality traits: character, emotion, competencies
What does Self concept look like in 12-14 year olds?
describe themselves in abstract ways such as extravert, anxious, perfectionist, etc. and they become different selves in different contexts
What does the Self-concept look like in 15-17 year olds?
troubled by apparent multiplicity and become concerned that they don't know who they are they enter identity formation
sense of self is poorly integrated and incoherent
What is the goal when in Identity Confusion?
to resolve the confusion and arrive at coherent identity
ignoring identity confusion
Risks of Identity Diffusion
less mature, apathetic, depression
settle on an identity without considering all options
Risks of Identity Foreclosure
period of experimenting with ideas to arrive at coherent identity
Positives of Moratorium
more mature, flexible and emotionally healthy
Negatives of Moratorium
Can become antisocial activities
What does Self Concept at 17+?
more focused on self-evaluations and begin to integrate their senses self as well become ok with the fact that they will react differently i certain situations
how we feel about our self concept
Positive Self Esteem outcomes
emotional well-being, life satisfaction, academic success
Negative Self-Esteem outcomes
When and why does self-esteem fall?
around 7-8 years because children begin to compare themselves to others
Influences on Self esteem
parenting and culture
how can parents promote high self-esteem?
accepting child, setting clear limits, and respecting individuality
How does culture contribute to high self esteem?
culture defines what is valued