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PSY 130: Developmental > The Self > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Self Deck (35):
1

What are the three aspects of the self?

physical, continuity, evaluation

2

physical

I am a physical entity separate from the world

3

continuity

I am the same person over time

4

Evaluation

I have particular qualities that make me unique and who I am

5

When does development of the self start?

3 months when infants realize they have an effect on their environment

6

What is the mirror task?

a dot was placed on infant's noses or forehead and they were placed in front of a mirror to see what they would do

7

What did the mirror task reveal?

By 2 years, children recognize themselves

8

What are some signs of self-awareness in toddlers?

self-conscious emotions, possessiveness, personal pronouns, referring to themselves by their name

9

What is Self-Concept

one's personal definition of oneself

10

How do toddlers describe themselves?

categories, physical attributes, possessions

11

Overall, toddlers self-concepts are in terms of what?

concrete observable things and they are overly optimistic

12

How do children form self concept?

Co-narration with parents: how stories are told affects self-concept

13

What are the sex differences in co-narration?

girl use more emotional language and boys are more likely to describe conflict

14

How does self-concept shift in elementary school?

children begin to engage in social comparison with other kids and the self becomes a social construct

15

What does Self concept look like in 8-11 year olds?

personality traits: character, emotion, competencies

16

What does Self concept look like in 12-14 year olds?

describe themselves in abstract ways such as extravert, anxious, perfectionist, etc. and they become different selves in different contexts

17

What does the Self-concept look like in 15-17 year olds?

troubled by apparent multiplicity and become concerned that they don't know who they are they enter identity formation

18

Identity confusion

sense of self is poorly integrated and incoherent

19

What is the goal when in Identity Confusion?

to resolve the confusion and arrive at coherent identity

20

Identity Diffusion

ignoring identity confusion

21

Risks of Identity Diffusion

less mature, apathetic, depression

22

Identity Foreclosure

settle on an identity without considering all options

23

Risks of Identity Foreclosure

intolerant, inflexible

24

Moratorium

period of experimenting with ideas to arrive at coherent identity

25

Positives of Moratorium

more mature, flexible and emotionally healthy

26

Negatives of Moratorium

Can become antisocial activities

27

What does Self Concept at 17+?

more focused on self-evaluations and begin to integrate their senses self as well become ok with the fact that they will react differently i certain situations

28

Self Esteem

how we feel about our self concept

29

Positive Self Esteem outcomes

emotional well-being, life satisfaction, academic success

30

Negative Self-Esteem outcomes

depression, anxiety

31

When and why does self-esteem fall?

around 7-8 years because children begin to compare themselves to others

32

Influences on Self esteem

parenting and culture

33

how can parents promote high self-esteem?

accepting child, setting clear limits, and respecting individuality

34

How does culture contribute to high self esteem?

culture defines what is valued

35

What can happen if there is too much emphasis on self-esteem?

children can end up conceited or fragile