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PSY 130: Developmental > Temperament > Flashcards

Flashcards in Temperament Deck (36):
1

Temperament

biologically based individual differences in behavioral functioning that remain stable over time

2

What was the first major study of Temperament?

141 participants were followed from infancy to adulthood where parents were interviewed about their children

3

In the First Major Study of Temperament, how often were parents interviewed about their 0-18 month old?

Every 3 months

4

In the First Major Study of Temperament, how often were parents interviewed about their 18 month to 5 year old?

Every 6 months

5

In the First Major Study of Temperament, how often were parents interviewed about their 5+ year old?

Every year

6

What was found from the First major study of Temperament?

there are nine dimensions of temperament

7

What are the nine dimensions of temperament?

1. Mood
2. approach/withdrawal
3. Adaptability
4. Intensity
5. Rhythm
6. persistence
7. Sensory Threshold
8. Activity
9. Distractibility

8

Mood

whether people are habitually positive or negative

9

Signs of a positive mood in children

smile and laughing at parents, happily plays with parents/siblings, joy from accomplishments

10

Signs of a negative mood in children

fussy during and after eating, crying often, cries when mother leaves briefly, intense distress when unable to complete homework problems

11

Approach/Withdrawal

how children respond to novelty (new things)

12

High Approach Indicators

enjoy encountering new people and not afraid to take risks

13

Low Approach Indicators

do not like new activities and can be tentative/frightened by new situations

14

Adaptability

How a child responds to changes in daily routine

15

Adaptable Indicators

can nap anywhere

16

Not Adaptable Indicators

must nap at specific times/place, distress with new babysitters/school/teacher

17

Intensity

Strength of emotional reactions

18

High intensity

exhibit extreme highs and lows

19

Low Intensity

subdued reactions

20

Rhythm

Regularity of a child's biological reactions

21

Predicable/Regular Child

sleep/eat at same time each day and same amount

22

Unpredictable/Irregular Child

does not sleep/eat regularly

23

Persistence

How Children respond to challenges

24

Sensory Threshold

how sensitive a child is to sensory stimuli

25

High Threshold

can sleep through anything and ignore loud noise in restraunts

26

Low Threshold

notices even soft sounds; irritated by even fabrics or clothing

27

Activity

what proportion of the day do kids spend time being physically active vs inactive?

28

Distractibility

how good a child is at focusing on an object/task and ignoring distracting stimuli

29

What is the Easy Temperament combination?

positive, rhythmic, adaptable and mild to moderate intensity

30

What is the Difficult Temperament Combination?

negative, active, irregular, non-adaptive, withdrawal and intense

31

What is the Slow to Warm up temperament combination?

withdrawal, slow to adapt, mild to moderate reactivity, low in activity

32

What is the main factor that influences temperament over time?

The "goodness of fit" between children and parent; the parent has to work with child, not against

33

What are the criticisms of Thomas and Chess?

1. same interviewer talked to parents each time
2. social desirability bias
3. negative bias

34

What are modern measurement techniques used when interviewing parents?

1. video tape
2. more precise questions
3. interview supplemented by other methods

35

Kagan Study

Measured 4 month olds reactions to novel experiences and then again at 4 years in lab to see if temperament is consistent over time

36

What did the Kagan Study conclude?

temperament can change a bit , but not dramatically