Flashcards in Temperament Deck (36):
biologically based individual differences in behavioral functioning that remain stable over time
What was the first major study of Temperament?
141 participants were followed from infancy to adulthood where parents were interviewed about their children
In the First Major Study of Temperament, how often were parents interviewed about their 0-18 month old?
Every 3 months
In the First Major Study of Temperament, how often were parents interviewed about their 18 month to 5 year old?
Every 6 months
In the First Major Study of Temperament, how often were parents interviewed about their 5+ year old?
What was found from the First major study of Temperament?
there are nine dimensions of temperament
What are the nine dimensions of temperament?
7. Sensory Threshold
whether people are habitually positive or negative
Signs of a positive mood in children
smile and laughing at parents, happily plays with parents/siblings, joy from accomplishments
Signs of a negative mood in children
fussy during and after eating, crying often, cries when mother leaves briefly, intense distress when unable to complete homework problems
how children respond to novelty (new things)
High Approach Indicators
enjoy encountering new people and not afraid to take risks
Low Approach Indicators
do not like new activities and can be tentative/frightened by new situations
How a child responds to changes in daily routine
can nap anywhere
Not Adaptable Indicators
must nap at specific times/place, distress with new babysitters/school/teacher
Strength of emotional reactions
exhibit extreme highs and lows
Regularity of a child's biological reactions
sleep/eat at same time each day and same amount
does not sleep/eat regularly
How Children respond to challenges
how sensitive a child is to sensory stimuli
can sleep through anything and ignore loud noise in restraunts
notices even soft sounds; irritated by even fabrics or clothing
what proportion of the day do kids spend time being physically active vs inactive?
how good a child is at focusing on an object/task and ignoring distracting stimuli
What is the Easy Temperament combination?
positive, rhythmic, adaptable and mild to moderate intensity
What is the Difficult Temperament Combination?
negative, active, irregular, non-adaptive, withdrawal and intense
What is the Slow to Warm up temperament combination?
withdrawal, slow to adapt, mild to moderate reactivity, low in activity
What is the main factor that influences temperament over time?
The "goodness of fit" between children and parent; the parent has to work with child, not against
What are the criticisms of Thomas and Chess?
1. same interviewer talked to parents each time
2. social desirability bias
3. negative bias
What are modern measurement techniques used when interviewing parents?
1. video tape
2. more precise questions
3. interview supplemented by other methods
Measured 4 month olds reactions to novel experiences and then again at 4 years in lab to see if temperament is consistent over time