[Motor neurone disease] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [Motor neurone disease] Deck (28)
1

[MND]: in which 3 locations are neurones selectively lost (3)

motor cortex
CN nuclei
anterior horn cells

2

[MND]: what is the sphincter disturbance

normal function

3

[MND]: what is the sensory loss

none

4

[MND]: what is the eye involvement

NONE whatsoever

5

[MND]: Name the 4 categories of MND

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Progressive bulbar palsy
Progressive muscular atrophy
primary lateral sclerosis

6

[MND]: what are the areas damaged in ALS

motor cortex neurone damage
+
anterior horn cell damage

7

[MND]: will there be UMNL or LMNL signs in ALS

Both

8

[MND]: what nerves are damaged in bulbar palsy

9-12 CNs

9

[MND]: what areas are damaged in progressive muscular atrophy

anterior horn cells only (LMNL)

10

[MND]: what areas are damaged in primary lateral sclerosis

loss of Betz cells in motor cortex
(UMNL)

11

[MND]: what complaint to patients often first present with (4)

spastic gait
foot drop
weak grip
aspiration pneumonia

12

[MND]: usual survival length?

2-4 years

13

[MND]: mean age of onset

60 years

14

[MND]: what drug is 1st line Tx

Riluzole

(antiglutamatergic)

15

[MND]: what drug can be given to prevent drooling

Propantheline

16

[MND]: bulbar palsy is what

LMNL
of 9-12 CNs

17

[MND]: pseudobulbar palsy is what

UMNL
pf swallowing/talking muscle groups

18

[MND]: what are the signs of bulbar palsy (3)

wasting of tongue
fasciculations of tongue
absent or normal jaw jerk

19

[MND]: what are the signs of pseudobulbar palsy

increased jaw jerk
slow deliberate speech
emotional incontinence without emotional change

20

[MND]: where is the lesion in a bulbar palsy

CN nuclei

21

[MND]: where is the lesion in a pseudobulbar palsy

corticobulbar tracts

22

[MND]: what is the name of the diagnostic criteria used in ALS

El Escorial

23

[MND]: What are the categories for El Escorial diagnosis

Definite ALS
probable ALS
probably with lab support (EMG)
possible ALS
Suspected

24

[MND]: what constitutes a definite diagnosis of ALS

LMNL+UMNL signs in 3 regions

25

[MND]: what constitutes a probable diagnosis of ALS

LMNL+UMNL signs in 2 regions

26

[MND]: what constitutes a possible diagnosis of ALS

LMNL+UMNL signs in 1 regions

27

[MND]: what constitutes a suspected diagnosis of ALS

UMNL or LMNL in 1 or more regions

28

[MND]: how does Riluzole work

excess glutamate in MND
Na+ channel blocker
inhibits glutamate release