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Flashcards in [parkinsonisms] Deck (32)
1

[parkinsonism]: what is the cardinal triad

Tremor
Rigidity/tone
Brady/hypokinesia

2

[parkinsonism]: when would you see the tremor

tremor at rest

3

[parkinsonism]: what characteristic movement of the hand is associated with tremor

pill-rolling

4

[parkinsonism]: how would facial hypokinesia manifest

expressionless (hypomimesis)

5

[parkinsonism]: repetitive movements manifest their hypokinesia with ...

decreased amplitude of movement

6

[parkinsonism]: which category of drugs can cause parkinsonism

Neuroleptics

7

[parkinsonism]: 2 specific drugs that can cause

Metoclopramide (D-R antagonist)
Prochlorperazine (D-R2 antagonist)

8

[parkinsonism]: accumulation of what metals can cause parkinsonism (2)

Manganese
Copper (Wilson's)

9

[PD]: Typical age of onset

65

10

[PD]: pathology of PD?

Mitochrondrial DNA dysfunction
degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta
(associated with Lewy bodies)

11

[PD]: dopamine therapy length of tx before end of dose dyskinesias and wearing off?

5-10 years

12

[PD]: 1st line dopamine agonists (early stage of PD)

Ropinirole
Pramipexole

13

[PD]: For sudden 'off' freezing, what medical Tx (in 'rescue-pen' form) is used?

Apomorphine

14

[PD]: non-motor features? (3)

reduced sense of smell
constipation
depression

15

[PD]: Prosody may be present. What is it?

poor emotional content of speech decoding

16

[PD]: Poor simultaneous cognitive and motor function can manifest as

Freezing whilst walking

17

[PD]: MAO-B inhibitors are an alternative to DAs in early PD. Name 2.

Selegiline
Rasagiline

18

[PD]: What drug may be used to lessen end-of-dose wearing? (2)

COMT inhibitors
(entacapone/tolcapone)

19

[PD]: What is the major complication with COMTi

hepatic complications
(LFTs monitor)

20

[PD]: Drug Tx for tremor (2)

Benzhexol
Orphenadrine
(anticholinergics)

21

[PD]: Major SE of anticholinergics

Confusion in elderly

22

[PD]: Levodopa is prescribed with what dopa-decarboxylase i

Carbidopa
(madopar/Sinemet)

23

[PD]: depression/dementia/psychosis are common, what 2 causes may these be from

Disease progression
Drug SE

24

[PD]: SE of Levodopa/carbidopa is Nausea. What can be prescribed?

Domperidone

25

[PD]: Parkinsons Plus syndromes have 5 red flags. What is them mneumonic?

VIVID

26

[PD]: Parkinson plus syndomes disease: postural instability

progressive supra nuclear palsy

27

[PD]: Parkinson plus syndomes disease: autonomic features

Multi system atrophy

28

[PD]: Parkinson plus syndomes disease: fluctuating cognition

Lewy body dementia

29

[PD]: Parkinson plus syndomes disease: rigidity/apraxia

Cortico-basal degeneration

30

[PD]: Parkinson plus syndomes disease: pyramidal signs

Vascular parkinsons

31

[PD]: Deep brain stimulation may be used in Pts who ..

partly dopamine responsive

32

[PD]: Surgical Tx?

Ablation of sub-thalamic nucleus