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Flashcards in [dementia] Deck (36)
1

[dementia]: The 2 cognitive tests?

AMTS (abbreviated mental test score)
TYM (test your memory)

2

[dementia]: 4 commonest types of dementia

Alzheimers
Vascular dementia
Lewy body dementia
Fronto-temporal dementia (aka Pick's)

3

[dementia]: cumulative effects of multiple mini-strokes causes ... dementia

vascular

4

[dementia]: Lewy body dementia presentation characterised by? (3)

Fluctuating cognitive impairment
Visual hallucinations
Parkinsonism

5

[dementia]: Anatomically where are Lewy bodies are found where? (histological finding) (2)

brainstem
neocortex (outermost layer of hemispheres)

6

[dementia]: Atrophy of ... and ... areas of the brain is found in Pick's dementia

Frontal
temporal

7

[dementia]: Pick's dementia associated with genes where?

Ch.9

8

[dementia]: Which memories are retained in Picks dementia

Episodic (autobiographical)

9

[dementia]: which dementia is associated with disinhibition, hyperorality, stereotyped behaviour and emotional unconcern

Picks

10

[dementiaMx]: Increased agitation causing challenging behaviour can be treated medically by which drugs? (2)

Trazodone(night)
Lorazepam

11

[dementia]: for which dementia should you not use anti-psychotics due to the SEs

Lewy body

12

[alzheimers]: in ... AD is inevitable

Downs syndrome

13

[alzheimers]: what sets AD apart from other dementias

enduring global cognitive impairment (cf. certain domains affected only)

14

[alzheimers]: is charecterised by what 5 cognitive impairments

Visuo-spatial skill
executive function
anosognosia (lack of insight into problems caused by AD)
Memory
verbal ability

15

[alzheimers]: what is the cause of progressive neuronal damage

Accumulation of b-amyloid peptide

16

[alzheimers]: accumulation of the b-amyloid peptide causes what (3)

Acetylcholine neurotransmitter loss
amyloid plaques deposition
Neurofibrillary tangles

17

[alzheimers]: Which 4 brain structures are most affected by this neuronal damage

Hippocampus
amygdala
temporal neocortex
subcortical nuclei

18

[alzheimers]: ... increases the risk by 2x

loneliness (not just living alone)

19

[alzheimers]: 95% of AD show evidence of what other dementia

vascular

20

[alzheimers]: what can be detected 25 yrs before onset of symptoms

B-amyloid changes in CSF

21

[alzheimers]: ... yrs before symptoms, deposition of b-amyloid be detected

15

22

[dementiaMx]: drug to improve behavioural symptoms in Lewy Body?

rivastigmine (Ach i)

23

[alzheimers]: why should you do an ECG before starting acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

they can exacerbate pre-existing heart block

24

[dementiaMx]: what 3 Ach i are available for Tx

Donepezil
Rivastigmine
Galantamine

25

[dementiaMx]: What drug may be effective in late stage disease

Memantine (NMDA antagonist)

26

[dementiaMx]: In early AD which drug targets b-amyloid

Solanezumab

27

[dementiaMx]: Which 2 supplements decrease mild impairment if homocysteine is >11micromol

B12
Folic acid

28

[dementia]: sudden onset dementia with step-wise deterioration indicates what cause

vascular

(multiple small strokes)

29

[dementia]: dementia onset over weeks indicates depression might be a cause T/F

T

30

[dementia]: why might excess alcohol cause dementia

reduced thiamine

31

[dementia]: can reduced T4, folate or B12 cause dementia

yes

32

[alzheimers]: homozygosisty for the ... allele is a risk factor

Apolipoprotein E e4

33

[alzheimers]: what 3 gene mutations are associated with AD

CL1
CLU
PICALM

34

[alzheimers]: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may worsen what 2 conditions

heart block
peptic ulcer

35

[alzheimers]: why is BP control so important

huge interplay between vasculopathy and AD

36

[alzheimers]: what are the 2 broad mainstay Txs

BP control
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors