[sub/extradural haemorrhages] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [sub/extradural haemorrhages] Deck (27)
1

[subdural]: which veins are responsible for the bleeding?

bridging veins between cortex and venous sinuses

2

[subdural]: what particular type of injury is associated with subdural haemorrhages

deceleration

3

[subdural]: what symptom is most associated

fluctuating levels of conciousness

4

[subdural]: between what 2 layers is the haematoma?

dura mater
arachnoid

5

[subdural]: what is the most common cause of sub-dural haematomas

trauma

(up to 9 months ago)

6

[subdural]: what signs would you expect to see? (3)

Raised ICP
seizures
Late onset localising neurological deficits (e.g. hemiparesis)

7

[subdural]: 1st line Ix?

CT/MRI

8

[subdural]: what class of drugs increase the risk of sub-dural

anticoagulants

9

[subdural]: across which 3 structures can herniation occur

tentorium
falx cerebri
foramen magnum (cerebellum)

10

[subdural]: what 3 classic characteristics can you identify on a sub-dural haemorrhage on imaging (3)

crescent shaped
hyperdense
diffuse

11

[subdural]: 1st line Tx?

Burr hole/twist drill craniostomy
(evacuation/irrigation)

12

[extradural]: what blood vessels are affected in extradural haemotomas?

middle meningeal

13

[extradural]: what is the most common causes of blood vessel damage?

fractured parietal/temporal bone

14

[extradural]: between what 2 structures does blood accumulate

bone
dura mater

15

[extradural]: a lucid pattern of drowsiness is the classical presentation. What does this mean

initial period of reduced concsiousness
apparently resolves

16

[extradural]: what is the pattern of headache involvement

increasingly severe

17

[extradural]: in advanced untreated extradural what ocular involvement is there

ipsilateral dilation

18

[extradural]: in advanced untreated extradural what pattern of limb weakness may there be

bilateral limb weakness

19

[extradural]: in advanced untreated extradural why do you get respiratory involvement

brainstem compression

20

[extradural]: what is the causes of death

coma with respiratory depression

21

[extradural]: what is the 1st line Ix

CT

22

[extradural]: what is the shape of the haematoma

lens

23

[extradural]: why is the shape of a extradural limited in its spread

the dural attachments to the skull keep it localised

24

[extradural]: what is CI'd

lumbar puncture

25

[extradural]: 1st line Tx?

surgery - ligation of artery

26

[extradural]: a dark patch on can be an incidental finding and is called an ....

arachnoid cyst

27

[extradural]: dural venous sinus tear will result in ... haemorrhage

extradural