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Flashcards in MSK Random Facts Deck (86)
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1

Baker cyst

Popliteal fluid collection commonly related to chronic joint disease

2

Most commonly involved ligament in an ankle sprain

Anterior talofibular

3

What innervates the teres minor?

Ancillary nerve

4

Injury classically seen in cyclists

Guyon canal injury to ulnar nerve

5

What supplies sensation to the lateral forearm?

Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-7)

6

What can you get with a superficial laceration of the Palm?

Injury to the recurrent branch of the median nerve, loss of thenar muscle group, no loss of sensation

7

Klumpke palsy

Lower trunk damage (C8-T1), loss of the intrinsic muscles of the hand, total claw hand-lumbricals normally flex MCP joints and extend DIP and PIP joints

8

Thoracic outlet syndrome

Compression of lower trunk and subclavian vessels

9

What do the interossei do

Dorsal interossei-abduct the fingers, Palmer interossei- adduct the fingers

10

What can cause an inferior gluteal nerve injury?

Posterior hip dislocation, nerve is L5-S1

11

What's in the anterior compartment?

Anterior tibial artery and deep peroneal nerve

12

What occurs during the power stroke?

Myosin releases bound ADP and PO4 causing displacement of the myosin and actin filament

13

What is ATP used for in the muscle contraction?

Myosin releasing actin

14

What is a type 1 muse fiber?

Slow twitch, red fiber, increased mitochondria and myoglobin concentration, used for sustained contraction

15

What is a type 2 muscle fiber?

Fast twitch fiber, white fiber, more anaerobic glycolysis, weight training results in hypertrophic of fast-twitch muscle fibers

16

McMurray test

External rotation and extension causing pain->medial meniscal tear; internal rotation and extension->lateral meniscal tear

17

How is contraction stimulated in smooth muscle?

AP opens L-type voltage gated Ca channel-> increased Ca in the cell binds to calmodulin-> Ca-calmodulin complex enhances myosin-light chain kinase, which phosphorylates myosin and leads to contraction

18

What do osteoblasts come from?

Differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells in the periosteum

19

What do osteoclasts come from and how do they work?

Differentiate from monocytes, macrophages. Multinucleated cells that dissolve bone by secreting acid and collagenases

20

Estrogens effects on bone

Estrogen inhibits apoptosis in bone-forming osteoblasts and induces apoptosis in bone-resorbing osteoclasts

21

Genetics of achondroplasia

Autosomal dominant (but >85% are sporadic), constitutive activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR3) inhibits chondrocyte proliferation

22

Osteoporosis histo and labs

Trabecular (spongy) bone loses mass and interconnections despite NORMAL mineralization and lab values

23

What is denosumab?

Monoclonal antibody against RANK-L

24

MOA of osteopetrosis

Mutations (eg, carbonic anhydrase II) impair ability of osteoclast to generate acidic environment necessary for bone resorption. Leads to thickened, dense bones that are prone to fracture. Pancytopenia and extramedullary hematopoeisis

25

What's wrong in rickets/osteomalacia?

Defective mineralization/calcification of osteoid

26

Lab values in rickets

Low vit D, low Ca, high PTH, low phos

27

Lab values in Pagets

Normal Ca, phos, and PTH. Elevated ALP.

28

Histo of pagets

Mosaic pattern of woven and lamellar bone

29

What are rheumatoid nodules

Fibrinous necrosis

30

"Soap bubble appearance"

Giant cell tumor. Epiphyseal end of long bones. Locally aggressive benign tumor