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Flashcards in Pathology Random Facts Deck (54)
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1

What does FGF do?

Stimulates angiogenesis

2

What does EGF do?

Stimulates cell growth via tyrosine kinases (e.g., EGFR, as expressed by ERB2)

3

What causes keloid scars?

Persistently elevated TGF-beta causing increased fibroblast proliferation and activity

4

Difference between coagulative and liquefactive necrosis?

Coagulative is caused by ischemia/infarcts in most tissues except the brain, which is liquefactive. In coagulative, proteins denature, then enzymes are degraded. In liquefactive, enzymes are degraded first, then proteins denature.

5

What does hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy affect?

Pyramidal cells of hippocampus and Purkinje cells of cerebellum

6

Where does calcium normally deposit in metastatic calcification and why?

In interstitial tissues of kidney, lung, and gastric mucosa, because these tissues lose acid quickly and increased pH favors deposition

7

Describe the steps and molecules in leukocyte extravasation

1. Margination and rolling- E/P-selectin with Sialyl-Lewis, 2. Tight-binding- ICAM1/VCAM1 with CD11/18 interns or VLA-4 integrin, 3. Diapedesis PECAM-1 on both, 4. Migration- C5a, chalkier, LTB4, IL-8, platelet-activating factor

8

What type of collagen is involved in wound healing?

Initially type III, which is replaced by type I collagen, which increases the tensile strength of the tissue

9

What cells and factors are involved in granulomas?

Th1 cells secrete IFN-gamma, which activates macrophages, and IL-2. TNF-alpha from macrophages induces and maintains granuloma formation.

10

What are some diseases that could cause a decreased ESR?

Sickle cell anemia (altered shape), polycythemia (increased RBCs "dilute" aggregation factors), HF, microcytosis, hypofibrinogenemia

11

Primary amyloidosis

AL, deposition of Ig light chains

12

Secondary amyloidosis

AA, seen in chronic inflammatory conditions, fibrils composed of serum Amyloid A

13

Cause of dialysis-related amyloid

Beta-2-microglobulin

14

Cause of heritable amyloidosis

Transthyretin gene mutation

15

Cause of age-related (senile) amyloidosis

Deposition of normal (wild-type) transthyretin

16

Thyroid gland amyloid

Calcitonin

17

Alzheimers amyloid

beta-amyloid (from APP)

18

Pituitary amyloid

Prolactin

19

Pancreas amyloid

Amylin

20

Amyloid in DM2

Islet amyloid polypeptide

21

What is lipofuscin

A yellow-brown "wear and tear" pigment associated with normal aging

22

What is p-glycoprotein?

AKA multi drug resistance protein 1. Used to pump out toxins, including chemotherapeutic agents. Classically in adrenal cell carcinoma

23

What is desmoplasia?

Fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm (eg, linitis plastica in diffuse stomach cancer)

24

What is choristoma

Normal tissue in a foreign location

25

What cancer is dermato- and polymyositis associated with?

Predispose to visceral malignancies, particularly GI

26

What should you think of with sudden multiple seborrheic keratoses?

GI, breast, lung, and lymphoid malignancies

27

Mutation in Li Fraumenti syndrome

p53

28

What do autoimmune diseases predispose you to?

Lymphoma

29

What is alkaline phosphatase a tumor marker for?

Metastases to bone or liver, Paget disease of bone, summon (placental ALP)

30

What is alpha-fetoprotein a tumor marker for?

Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, yolk sac tumor, mixed germ cell tumor