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Flashcards in Pathology Random Facts Deck (54):
1

What does FGF do?

Stimulates angiogenesis

2

What does EGF do?

Stimulates cell growth via tyrosine kinases (e.g., EGFR, as expressed by ERB2)

3

What causes keloid scars?

Persistently elevated TGF-beta causing increased fibroblast proliferation and activity

4

Difference between coagulative and liquefactive necrosis?

Coagulative is caused by ischemia/infarcts in most tissues except the brain, which is liquefactive. In coagulative, proteins denature, then enzymes are degraded. In liquefactive, enzymes are degraded first, then proteins denature.

5

What does hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy affect?

Pyramidal cells of hippocampus and Purkinje cells of cerebellum

6

Where does calcium normally deposit in metastatic calcification and why?

In interstitial tissues of kidney, lung, and gastric mucosa, because these tissues lose acid quickly and increased pH favors deposition

7

Describe the steps and molecules in leukocyte extravasation

1. Margination and rolling- E/P-selectin with Sialyl-Lewis, 2. Tight-binding- ICAM1/VCAM1 with CD11/18 interns or VLA-4 integrin, 3. Diapedesis PECAM-1 on both, 4. Migration- C5a, chalkier, LTB4, IL-8, platelet-activating factor

8

What type of collagen is involved in wound healing?

Initially type III, which is replaced by type I collagen, which increases the tensile strength of the tissue

9

What cells and factors are involved in granulomas?

Th1 cells secrete IFN-gamma, which activates macrophages, and IL-2. TNF-alpha from macrophages induces and maintains granuloma formation.

10

What are some diseases that could cause a decreased ESR?

Sickle cell anemia (altered shape), polycythemia (increased RBCs "dilute" aggregation factors), HF, microcytosis, hypofibrinogenemia

11

Primary amyloidosis

AL, deposition of Ig light chains

12

Secondary amyloidosis

AA, seen in chronic inflammatory conditions, fibrils composed of serum Amyloid A

13

Cause of dialysis-related amyloid

Beta-2-microglobulin

14

Cause of heritable amyloidosis

Transthyretin gene mutation

15

Cause of age-related (senile) amyloidosis

Deposition of normal (wild-type) transthyretin

16

Thyroid gland amyloid

Calcitonin

17

Alzheimers amyloid

beta-amyloid (from APP)

18

Pituitary amyloid

Prolactin

19

Pancreas amyloid

Amylin

20

Amyloid in DM2

Islet amyloid polypeptide

21

What is lipofuscin

A yellow-brown "wear and tear" pigment associated with normal aging

22

What is p-glycoprotein?

AKA multi drug resistance protein 1. Used to pump out toxins, including chemotherapeutic agents. Classically in adrenal cell carcinoma

23

What is desmoplasia?

Fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm (eg, linitis plastica in diffuse stomach cancer)

24

What is choristoma

Normal tissue in a foreign location

25

What cancer is dermato- and polymyositis associated with?

Predispose to visceral malignancies, particularly GI

26

What should you think of with sudden multiple seborrheic keratoses?

GI, breast, lung, and lymphoid malignancies

27

Mutation in Li Fraumenti syndrome

p53

28

What do autoimmune diseases predispose you to?

Lymphoma

29

What is alkaline phosphatase a tumor marker for?

Metastases to bone or liver, Paget disease of bone, summon (placental ALP)

30

What is alpha-fetoprotein a tumor marker for?

Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, yolk sac tumor, mixed germ cell tumor

31

What is beta-HCG a tumor marker for?

Hydatidiform moles and Choriocarcinoma, testicular cancer, mixed germ cell tumor

32

What is CA 15-3/CA 27-29 a tumor marker for?

Breast cancer

33

What is chromogranin a tumor marker for?

Neuroendocrine tumors/carcinoid

34

What is S100 a tumor marker for?

Melanoma

35

What is the associated cancer for HTLV-1?

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

36

What is the associated tumor or the liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis)

Cholangiocarcinoma

37

When do you see Psammoma bodies?

Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, serous papillary cystuadenocarcinoma of ovary, meningioma, and malignant mesothelioma

38

Which carcinomas spread hematogenously?

RCC, HCC, follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, and choriocarcinoma

39

Classic finding in carbon monoxide poisoning

Cherry red skin

40

Which form of iron cannot bind oxygen

Fe 3+

41

Cyanosis with chocolate-colored blood

Methemoglobinemia

42

Treatment for methemoglobinemia

Methylene blue, which helps reduce Fe3 back to Fe2+

43

What causes fat necrosis?

Fatty acids released by trauma (eg to breast) or lipase (eg, pancreatitis) join with calcium via a process called saponification

44

What does calcium deposit on in dystrophic calcification?

Necrotic tissue!

45

What breaks down the DNA in apoptosis?

Endonucleases

46

What is the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of apoptosis?

Intrinsic-inactivation of Bcl2 allows cytochrome c to leak from the inner mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm and activate cascades; extrinsic- FAS ligand binds FAS death receptor (CD95) activating caspases, OR TNF binding

47

What leads to a continued rise in cardiac enzymes after reperfusion of infarctes myocardial tissue?

Return of blood results in production of O2 derived free radicals causing tissue damage

48

How is arachidonic acid released from the cell membrane?

Phospholipase A2

49

Which complement parts are anaphylatoxins?

C3b and c5a

50

What is Hageman factor?

Factor XII. Activates coagulation, complement, and kinin system

51

How is fever caused?

Pyrogens (eg LPS from bacteria) cause macrophages to release IL-1 and TNF, which increase cyclooxygenase activity in peri vascular cells of the hypothalamus. Increased PGE2 raises temp set point

52

What causes leukocyte adhesion deficiency?

Most commonly and autosomal recessive defect of integrins (CD18 subunit)

53

How is Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic

Prevents cytochrome C release by binding and inhibiting Apaf-1. Apaf normally induces the activation of caspases

54

What is fibrinoid necrosis?

Immune complexes combine with fibrin and cause vessel wall damage