Flashcards in Pathology Random Facts Deck (54)
What does FGF do?
What does EGF do?
Stimulates cell growth via tyrosine kinases (e.g., EGFR, as expressed by ERB2)
What causes keloid scars?
Persistently elevated TGF-beta causing increased fibroblast proliferation and activity
Difference between coagulative and liquefactive necrosis?
Coagulative is caused by ischemia/infarcts in most tissues except the brain, which is liquefactive. In coagulative, proteins denature, then enzymes are degraded. In liquefactive, enzymes are degraded first, then proteins denature.
What does hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy affect?
Pyramidal cells of hippocampus and Purkinje cells of cerebellum
Where does calcium normally deposit in metastatic calcification and why?
In interstitial tissues of kidney, lung, and gastric mucosa, because these tissues lose acid quickly and increased pH favors deposition
Describe the steps and molecules in leukocyte extravasation
1. Margination and rolling- E/P-selectin with Sialyl-Lewis, 2. Tight-binding- ICAM1/VCAM1 with CD11/18 interns or VLA-4 integrin, 3. Diapedesis PECAM-1 on both, 4. Migration- C5a, chalkier, LTB4, IL-8, platelet-activating factor
What type of collagen is involved in wound healing?
Initially type III, which is replaced by type I collagen, which increases the tensile strength of the tissue
What cells and factors are involved in granulomas?
Th1 cells secrete IFN-gamma, which activates macrophages, and IL-2. TNF-alpha from macrophages induces and maintains granuloma formation.
What are some diseases that could cause a decreased ESR?
Sickle cell anemia (altered shape), polycythemia (increased RBCs "dilute" aggregation factors), HF, microcytosis, hypofibrinogenemia
AL, deposition of Ig light chains
AA, seen in chronic inflammatory conditions, fibrils composed of serum Amyloid A
Cause of dialysis-related amyloid
Cause of heritable amyloidosis
Transthyretin gene mutation
Cause of age-related (senile) amyloidosis
Deposition of normal (wild-type) transthyretin
Thyroid gland amyloid
beta-amyloid (from APP)
Amyloid in DM2
Islet amyloid polypeptide
What is lipofuscin
A yellow-brown "wear and tear" pigment associated with normal aging
What is p-glycoprotein?
AKA multi drug resistance protein 1. Used to pump out toxins, including chemotherapeutic agents. Classically in adrenal cell carcinoma
What is desmoplasia?
Fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm (eg, linitis plastica in diffuse stomach cancer)
What is choristoma
Normal tissue in a foreign location
What cancer is dermato- and polymyositis associated with?
Predispose to visceral malignancies, particularly GI
What should you think of with sudden multiple seborrheic keratoses?
GI, breast, lung, and lymphoid malignancies
Mutation in Li Fraumenti syndrome
What do autoimmune diseases predispose you to?
What is alkaline phosphatase a tumor marker for?
Metastases to bone or liver, Paget disease of bone, summon (placental ALP)