Flashcards in Pathology Random Facts Deck (54):
What does FGF do?
What does EGF do?
Stimulates cell growth via tyrosine kinases (e.g., EGFR, as expressed by ERB2)
What causes keloid scars?
Persistently elevated TGF-beta causing increased fibroblast proliferation and activity
Difference between coagulative and liquefactive necrosis?
Coagulative is caused by ischemia/infarcts in most tissues except the brain, which is liquefactive. In coagulative, proteins denature, then enzymes are degraded. In liquefactive, enzymes are degraded first, then proteins denature.
What does hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy affect?
Pyramidal cells of hippocampus and Purkinje cells of cerebellum
Where does calcium normally deposit in metastatic calcification and why?
In interstitial tissues of kidney, lung, and gastric mucosa, because these tissues lose acid quickly and increased pH favors deposition
Describe the steps and molecules in leukocyte extravasation
1. Margination and rolling- E/P-selectin with Sialyl-Lewis, 2. Tight-binding- ICAM1/VCAM1 with CD11/18 interns or VLA-4 integrin, 3. Diapedesis PECAM-1 on both, 4. Migration- C5a, chalkier, LTB4, IL-8, platelet-activating factor
What type of collagen is involved in wound healing?
Initially type III, which is replaced by type I collagen, which increases the tensile strength of the tissue
What cells and factors are involved in granulomas?
Th1 cells secrete IFN-gamma, which activates macrophages, and IL-2. TNF-alpha from macrophages induces and maintains granuloma formation.
What are some diseases that could cause a decreased ESR?
Sickle cell anemia (altered shape), polycythemia (increased RBCs "dilute" aggregation factors), HF, microcytosis, hypofibrinogenemia
AL, deposition of Ig light chains
AA, seen in chronic inflammatory conditions, fibrils composed of serum Amyloid A
Cause of dialysis-related amyloid
Cause of heritable amyloidosis
Transthyretin gene mutation
Cause of age-related (senile) amyloidosis
Deposition of normal (wild-type) transthyretin
Thyroid gland amyloid
beta-amyloid (from APP)
Amyloid in DM2
Islet amyloid polypeptide
What is lipofuscin
A yellow-brown "wear and tear" pigment associated with normal aging
What is p-glycoprotein?
AKA multi drug resistance protein 1. Used to pump out toxins, including chemotherapeutic agents. Classically in adrenal cell carcinoma
What is desmoplasia?
Fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm (eg, linitis plastica in diffuse stomach cancer)
What is choristoma
Normal tissue in a foreign location
What cancer is dermato- and polymyositis associated with?
Predispose to visceral malignancies, particularly GI
What should you think of with sudden multiple seborrheic keratoses?
GI, breast, lung, and lymphoid malignancies
Mutation in Li Fraumenti syndrome
What do autoimmune diseases predispose you to?
What is alkaline phosphatase a tumor marker for?
Metastases to bone or liver, Paget disease of bone, summon (placental ALP)
What is alpha-fetoprotein a tumor marker for?
Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, yolk sac tumor, mixed germ cell tumor
What is beta-HCG a tumor marker for?
Hydatidiform moles and Choriocarcinoma, testicular cancer, mixed germ cell tumor
What is CA 15-3/CA 27-29 a tumor marker for?
What is chromogranin a tumor marker for?
What is S100 a tumor marker for?
What is the associated cancer for HTLV-1?
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
What is the associated tumor or the liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis)
When do you see Psammoma bodies?
Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, serous papillary cystuadenocarcinoma of ovary, meningioma, and malignant mesothelioma
Which carcinomas spread hematogenously?
RCC, HCC, follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, and choriocarcinoma
Classic finding in carbon monoxide poisoning
Cherry red skin
Which form of iron cannot bind oxygen
Cyanosis with chocolate-colored blood
Treatment for methemoglobinemia
Methylene blue, which helps reduce Fe3 back to Fe2+
What causes fat necrosis?
Fatty acids released by trauma (eg to breast) or lipase (eg, pancreatitis) join with calcium via a process called saponification
What does calcium deposit on in dystrophic calcification?
What breaks down the DNA in apoptosis?
What is the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of apoptosis?
Intrinsic-inactivation of Bcl2 allows cytochrome c to leak from the inner mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm and activate cascades; extrinsic- FAS ligand binds FAS death receptor (CD95) activating caspases, OR TNF binding
What leads to a continued rise in cardiac enzymes after reperfusion of infarctes myocardial tissue?
Return of blood results in production of O2 derived free radicals causing tissue damage
How is arachidonic acid released from the cell membrane?
Which complement parts are anaphylatoxins?
C3b and c5a
What is Hageman factor?
Factor XII. Activates coagulation, complement, and kinin system
How is fever caused?
Pyrogens (eg LPS from bacteria) cause macrophages to release IL-1 and TNF, which increase cyclooxygenase activity in peri vascular cells of the hypothalamus. Increased PGE2 raises temp set point
What causes leukocyte adhesion deficiency?
Most commonly and autosomal recessive defect of integrins (CD18 subunit)
How is Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic
Prevents cytochrome C release by binding and inhibiting Apaf-1. Apaf normally induces the activation of caspases