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1

Meissner corpuscles

In the glabrous (hairless) skin, for dynamic, fine/light touch, position sense, adapt quickly

2

Pacinian corpuscles

Adapt quickly, in the deep skin layers, ligaments, joints, sense vibration and pressure

3

Merkel discs

Adapt slowly, in the fingertips and superficial skin, sense pressure, deep status touch (e.g., shapes, edges), position sense

4

Ruffini corpuscles

Adapt slowly, in the fingertips and joints, sense pressure, slippage of objects along surface of skin, joint angles change

5

What are does stress and panic

locus ceruleus (where norepi is synthesized)

6

Vitamin necessary for synthesis and catabolism of GABA

B6

7

How is GABA synthesized?

From glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase

8

Lateral hypothalamus

Hunger

9

Ventromedial hypothalamus

Satiety

10

Anterior hypothalamus

Cooling, parasympathetic

11

Posterior hypothalamus

Heating, sympathetic

12

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

Circadian rhythm

13

What causes the extra ocular eye movements during REM?

Paramedian pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center

14

VPL

Pain, temp; pressure, touch, vibration, proprioception (from the spinothalamic and DCML pathways)

15

VPM

Face sensation, taste (from the trigeminal and gustatory pathway)

16

LGN

Vision (goes TO the calcarine sulcus)

17

MGN

Hearing

18

VL

Motor

19

What are the output nerves from the cerebellum?

Purkinje cells to the deep nuclei of cerebellum to the contralateral cortex via superior cerebellar peduncle

20

Characteristic lesion for hemiballismus

Contralateral subthalamic nucleus

21

Which disease do you see Lewy bodies in?

PARKINSONS

22

Neurohormonal changes in Huntington's disease?

Increased dopamine, decreased GABA, decreased ACh

23

What causes neuronal death in HD?

NMDA-R binding and glutamate toxicity

24

Agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, left-right disorientation

Lesion to the dominant pariental-temporal cortex, Gerstmann syndrome

25

Damage to the PPRF

Eyes look away from the lesion

26

Damage to the frontal eye fields

Eyes look toward the lesion

27

What is cerebral perfusion driven by?

Pco2 (hypoxemia increases cerebral perfusion only when Po2 is less than 50)

28

Why do people faint in panic attacks?

Hyperventilation leads to decreased cerebral perfusion

29

Equation for cerebral perfusion pressure

CPP=MAP-ICP

30

Symptoms of lateral medullary syndrome

Vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus; decreased pain and temp sensation from ipsilateral face and contralateral body; dysphagia, hoarseness, decreased gag reflex; ipsilateral Horner syndrome; ataxia, dysmetria