Flashcards in Repro Random facts Deck (97)
What causes a cleft palate?
Failure of fusion of the two lateral palatine processes or failure of fusion of lateral palatine processes with the nasal septum and/or median palatine process
What causes testes development?
SEY gene in Y chromosome produces testes determining factor
What secretes MIF?
Action of MIF
Suppresses development of paramesonephric ducts
What does the mesonephric duct become and what stimulates it to become this?
Seminal vesicles, epididymis, ejaculatory duct, ductus deferens. Stimulated by androgens from Leydig cells
Primary amenorrhea in a woman with fully developed secondary sexual characteristics
What causes development of the prostate?
DHT (so 5-alpha-reductase deficiency causes male internal genetalia, ambiguous external genetalia until puberty)
What does the genital tubercle become in men?
Glans penis and corpus cavernosum and spongiosum
What is the female homolog of the prostate gland?
Urethral and para urethral glands (of Skene)
What is the male homolog of the greater vestibular glands (of Bartholin)
Bulbourethral glands of Cowper
What is hypospadias associated with?
Inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism
Mehta causes epispadias?
Faulty positioning of genital tubercle
What do the urogenital folds become?
Ventral shaft of penis in men and labia minora in women
What causes a cleft lip?
Failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes (formation of primary palate)
Lymph drainage of the proximal vagina/uterus
Obturator, external iliac, and hypogastric nodes
What is the other name for the suspensory ligament of the ovary?
What is the round ligament?
Connects the uterine funds to labia majora. Derivative of the gubernaculum. Travels through round inguinal canal; above artery of Sampson
Affects of temperature on Sertoli cells
Increased temperature causes decreased sperm production and decreased inhibin
Where are the Leydig cells?
In the interstitial between seminiferous tubules
What does androgen binding protein do and what secretes it?
Secreted by Sertoli cells, maintains local levels of testosterone (by binding and making it less lipophilic so it stays in the tubule)
What types of estrogen are made by the ovary, placenta, and adipose tissue and what is the potency?
Ovary: 17-beta-estradiol; placenta: estriol; adipose tissue: estrone via aromatization. Potency: Estradiol> estrone> estriol
Effect of SHBG on cholesterol
Increased transport proteins (SHBG) causes increased HDL and decreased LDL
Which cells in the female make androgens?
Theca interna cells
What enzyme is used to make androgens from cholesterol
Which cells make estrogens from androgens
Where are estrogen receptors located?
Cytoplasm (translate to the nucleus when bound by estrogen)
Regulation of prolactin by estrogen and progesterone
Estrogen stimulates prolactin secretion, fall in progesterone after delivery disinhibits prolactin
When is follicular growth the fastest?
During the 2nd week of the proliferative phase
Where is meiosis I arrested and until when?
Arrested in prophase I for years until ovulation