GI random facts Flashcards Preview

Step 1 > GI random facts > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI random facts Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

What affects zone 2 of the liver?

Yellow fever

2

What affects zone 3 of the liver?

Ischemia, metabolic toxins, alcoholic hepatitis

3

What are the spermatic cord fascia layers and where do they come from?

Extern spermatic fascia from the external oblique, cremaster in muscle and fascia from the internal oblique, and internal spermatic fascia from the transversal is fascia

4

What increases gastrin secretion?

Chronic atrophic gastritis, Z-E syndrome, and chronic PPI use

5

What are the effects of CCK?

⬆️ pancreatic secretion, ⬆️ gallbladder contraction,⬆️ sphincter of Oddi relaxation, decrease gastric emptying

6

How does CCK have its effects?

Acts on neural muscarinic pathways to cause pancreatic secretion

7

Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria

VIPoma

8

Regulators of gastric parietal cell and how they work

Ach (M3) and gastrin (CCKa) activate a Gq receptors increasing IP3 and Ca. Histamine (H2) activates a Gs protein increasing cAMP. Prostaglandins/misoprostol and somatostatin activate a GI protein, inhibiting cAMP.

9

Where is iron absorbed?

Duodenum

10

Where is folate absorbed

Small bowel

11

Where is B12 absorbed?

Terminal ileum with bile salts, requires intrinsic factor

12

What catalyzes the rate limiting step in bile synthesis?

Cholesterol-7-alpha-hydroxylase

13

What is the body's only mechanism of cholesterol elimination?

Bile secretion

14

How does bile have antimicrobial activity?

Via membrane disruption

15

What catalyzes the conjugation of bilirubin?

UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase

16

What causes achalasia?

Loss of myenteric (Auerbach) plexus

17

What does achalasia predispose you to?

Squamous cell carcinomA

18

Histopathology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Solid nests of neoplasticism squamous cells with abundant eosinophilia cytoplasm and distinct borders. Areas of keratinization and the presence of intercellular bridges

19

Ménétrier disease

Gastric hyperplasia of mucosa causes hypertrophied rugae, excess mucus production with resultant protein loss and parietal cell atrophy with decreased acid production. Precancerous

20

What affects zone 1 of the liver?

Viral hepatitis

21

Which types of colonic polyps are non-neoplastic, neoplastic, and premalignant?

Hyperplastic and hamartomatous are non-neoplastic, adenomatous is neoplastic, and serrated is premalignant

22

Which type of adenomatous polyp has more malignant potential: villous or tubular?

Villous

23

How are serrated polyps premalignant ?

Via CpG hypermethylation phenotype pathway with microsatellite instability and mutations in BRAF

24

"Saw tooth" pattern of crypts

Serrated polyp

25

FAP

AD, mutation of APC on chromosome 5q

26

Gardner syndrome

FAP plus osseous and soft tissue tumors, congenital hyper trophy of retinal pigment epithelium, impacted/supernumerary teeth

27

Turcot syndrome

FAP plus malignant CNS tumor

28

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

AD, numerous hamartomatous polyps plus hyperpigmentation, increased risk of colorectal, breast, stomach, small bowel, and pancreatic cancer.

29

Pigmented mucocutaneous Macules on the buccal mucosa

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

30

What is fetor hepaticus?

Musty smelling breath from liver cell failure/cirrhosis