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Flashcards in MT-healing Deck (119):
1

most organs of the body are formed by "functional cells" called_____

parenchyma

2

parenchyma are bounded to together by connective tissue that forms the ______

stroma

3

When tissue is replaced from the parenchyma the process is called ______

regeneration

4

when fibrous scar tissue fills the gap left by the loss of damaged tissue it is called ____

repair

5

components of healing (4)

regenerationrepairrevascularizationsurface restoration

6

the formation of new ____ channels is important to healing

vascular

7

when cells lost through injury are replaced via mitosis of adjacent parenchymal cells....

regeneration

8

regeneration is and ideal response to injury because.....

new tissue assumes normal functions

9

not all tissues in the body possess the same degree of ______ capacity

regenerative

10

in terms of regeneration, there are 3 types of tissue

labilestablepermanent

11

_____ tissues must divide continually to replace cells that are being depleted by normal processes

labile

12

examples of labile tissue

skin, mucous membranes, linings of ducts, red bone marrow and lymphoid tissue

13

_____ tissue, regeneration involves accelerating the normal mitotic rate

labile

14

_____ tissue are those that divide slowly post adolescence

Stable

15

stable tissue examples

glandsliverosteoblastssmooth muscle fibersvascular endothelium

16

Regeneration in stable tissue is organized in a pattern dictated by the _____

stroma

17

disorderly regeneration process results in ______ tissue configuration typically involves ______ deficiency

abnormal, functional

18

in labile tissue the number of actively dividing cells is ___% or greater

1.5%

19

in _____ tissue, the number of dividing cells is less than 1.5%

stable

20

the loss of _____ tissue results in functional loss. this is because mitotic activity stops at ____

functional, birth

21

examples of permanent tissue

nervous tissuecardiac/skeletal muscle

22

permanent tissues are replaced by

scar tissue

23

stable cells can _____ the division cycle but only with the appropriate ______

reenter, growth stimulus

24

healing by____ is the process of laying down fibrous connective tissue

repair

25

repair restores _______ and _____ but not function

strength and structural integrity

26

scares are form by a process called

fibrosis

27

_____ cells make collagen fibers

fibroblasts

28

fibroblasts are present in the ___ tissue of the organs ____

CT, stroma

29

are resistant to damage

fibroblasts

30

fundamental subunit for formation of collagen

procollagen

31

procollagen + procollegen

long filament of collagen

32

long filament of collagen X many long filaments of collagen

collagen fiber bundles

33

newly formed collagen is weak until ___ days post injury

5

34

Cross linking of collagen fibers occur via ______ bonds between _____ fibers

chemical, adjacent

35

tensile strength of collagen matches that of

cast iron

36

tensile strength continues to increase in fibrous repair tissue after collagen production stops because....

it realigns it's orientation along the lines of stress

37

extracellular matrix is where

process of scaring occurs

38

lots of protein with small carbo portion

glycoproteins

39

lots of carbs with little protein

proteoglycans (mucopolysacccharides)

40

ECM helps scar formation by

helping form a well anchored scar

41

plasma fibrinogen gets converted to ______, forming a _____ that entraps blood and tissue debris

fibrin, mesh

42

___ must be removed for healing process to be complete

clot

43

the elimination of the clot by phagocytosis (or necrotic tissue) and its replacement of scar tissue is called ______

organization

44

production of new blood vessels to supply and drain the site of damage is called

revascularization

45

______ occurs in the exudate at the damage site

revascularization

46

exudate takes on the characteristic pink and granular appearance, hence called ______ tissue

grannulation

47

_____ is dependent of the organization of the granulation tissue

repair

48

______ tissue is a transition material in which fibrosis and revascularization are favored

grannulation

49

new capillaries are formed from intact vessels _____ to the wound site

adjacent

50

dividing endothelial cells from adjacent capillaries project into the damaged area to form ______

endothelial buds (or cords)

51

vessel walls are built from the ______ _____

inside out

52

newly formed vessels are more

permeable

53

starts later and ends slower when compared to revascularization of blood vessels

lymphatic drainage

54

new endothelial buds of blood capillaries never link up with those coming from

lymphatic vessels

55

healing region has high

metabolic demand = more pink

56

links to vasomotor neurons develop and _____ nervous control of new vessels

restores

57

in surface restoration a zone of ______ developers near the wound edge.

active mitosis

58

primary healing describes healing of a

incision

59

clot functions

limits blood lossseals wound from dehydrationprotects agains microbesprovides stabilization for repair fibters

60

_____ digests the clot

macrophages via enzyme release

61

as macrophages digest the clot the ______ is released from RBCs and contribute to early discoloration

hemoglobin

62

granulation, revascularization and fibroblast activity start happening well with in

2 days

63

__ -___ days stitches are removed

6-8

64

resumption of _____ formation causes loosening of the scab, allowing it to easily separate from newly restored surface

keratin

65

melanocytes cannot ______ so they are not replaced (that is why the scar is lighter on the epidermis)

regenerate

66

the strength of fully healed skin never reaches its ______ level

preinjury

67

@ 5 days the new skin is ____ of original strength

10%

68

@ two months the new skin is ____ of original strength

1/3

69

@ 3 months the new skin is ____ of original strength

70-80% (max strength)

70

Secondary healing

is seen in wounds whose edges are not closely opposed

71

wounds that require secondary healing are _____ and _____

larger, produce more debris

72

secondary healing takes _____ than primary healing

longer

73

wound contraction

reduces the size of the gap the granulation tissue must fill and area the new epithelium must restore

74

mechanism of underlying wound contraction depends on a specialized cell called a _______

myofibroblast (has contractile capability while resembling a fibroblast)

75

myofibroblast start by _____ to other cells or fibrous structures at the margins of the wound

anchoring

76

a ____ wound leaves more surface to restore

circular

77

myofibroblasts align themselves so that they contract in a direction at ______ angles to the _______ center

right, geometric

78

when bone heals it forms new tissue and returns to _____ strength at point of damage

original

79

when the _____ is torn blood bleeds ino the surrounding tissue

periosteum

80

first stage of bone healing involves removal of ______ blood

clotted

81

initial stage of bone healing ______ migrate from the periostium and endosteium

osteoblasts

82

early second stage of healing_____ lay down dense collagen and cartilage resulting in a ______ mass

osteoblasts, fibrocartilaginous mass (akas soft callus/osteoid)

83

fibrocartilaginout mass provides _____ of the fracture

stabilization

84

______ is ossified by osteoblasts and forms a hard callus

osteoid (solf callus),

85

the third stage is _____ of the hard callus

remodeling

86

the third stage involves both _____ and _____

osteoblasts, osteoclasts

87

stage 1 ___ daysstage 2stage 3

4-5 days3 weeksmonths to years

88

damaged neurons are replaced by ____

gliosis

89

gliosis is the ____ of neuroglia

proliferration

90

no function is restored with partial or inadaquate axon ______

regeneration

91

the ____ only part of a myelinated neuros process is lost the damage the lost portion can regenerate is the supporting connective tissue and ______ remain intact along the original path of the neuron process

PNS, Schwann cells

92

regeneration of neurons cannot replace any _____ sensory receptors, this results in restoration of ____ but not _____

specialized, motor, sensory

93

when _____ connective tissue is lost throught injury the necessary guidance for the gowth of new sprouts is lacking and the _____ oft he axon or dendrite does not occur

nerve's, regeneration

94

when an entire nerve is severed. regeneration of its neurons processes may occur if the _____ ends are aligned and promply sutured

opposite

95

if the nerve ends remain separated, the distal processes

degenerate

96

traumatic neuroma

disorganized tangle of axons and scare tissue that is usually quite painful

97

regeneration occurs in ____ muscle but not ____

smooth, skeletal

98

complication of healing

contractureadhesionsdehiscencekeloidsproud flesh

99

______ may limit mobility

contracture

100

______ is a contracture that constricts lumen of an organ

stricture (can even lead to stasis)

101

stricture of fallopian tube can lead to

sterility

102

stricture of intestines can lead to

perferation of the wall

103

Dehiscence

breaking up of a healing wound because of pressure

104

the abdominal wall is the most common site of ____

dehiscence

105

chances for dehiscence is greatly increased with ______

Paroxysms (coughing, vomiting, diarrhea)

106

dehiscence can lead to _____

hernia

107

Irregular masses of scar tissue

keloids

108

excessive release of ____ or super sensitivitiy can lead to keloid formation

TGF-B (transforming growth factor beta)

109

secreted by macrophages at site of injury

TGF-B (transforming growth factor beta)

110

TGF-B (transforming growth factor beta) function

proliferation of fibroblasts

111

overproduction of granulation tissue

proud flesh

112

when skin is pulled off with surgical material ____ which is normally at the surface of the skin is stuck deep into the dermis causeing

keratin, suture complications

113

cortico-steroids can _____ chances of infection

increase

114

movement near wound _____ or ____ healing

delays, prevents

115

non union or fibrous union occures when _____ is not ossified

osteoid

116

immobility is especially important for

muscle and tendon regeneration

117

animo acid _______ is required for normal healing because _____ need it for forming extra cellular matrix

methionine, proteoglycans

118

_____ is important for enzymes

zinc

119

AAs to procollagen needs

vitamin C