Third quiz #3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Third quiz #3 Deck (65):
1

Examples of places susceptible to ionizing radiation (4) these are known as the labile tissues

bone marrowreproductive cellsmucous membraneGI tract

2

Ionizing radiation destroys nuclear material which inhibits _____

DNA replication

3

____ is usually the result of ionozing radiation

Leukemia(CAT scan in children)

4

____ & ____ muscle is not sensitive to ionizing radiation

Skeletal, heart

5

CD4 receptor cells include _____ cells or macrophages

T4 helper

6

Viruses are ____ because they are much smaller than a cell

intracellular

7

_____ virus is attracted to the nervous system and crawls along the nervous fiber

rabies

8

Loss of function in Greek is _____, Galen named it such

functio laesa

9

After the passing of the pre-capillary ____ begins the only place in the body where the exchange between interstitial fluid and blood

sphincter

10

Only at the _____ and ______ is where the exchange takes place, thus it it also the same place _____ takes place

capillaries, post-capillaries, inflammation

11

The capillaries have a _____ and endothelial cells with _____ between

basement membrane, gaps

12

_____ work like transports, exchange between blood and tissue

Pinocyte vesicles

13

Tissues without _____ cannot become inflamed

blood vessels

14

If the skin is cut, vessels immediately ____ but then _____ in order to inflame the area

vasoconstrict, vasodilate

15

_____ is an excess of blood in a body part, an engorgement, it is a passive vascular process of inflammation

Hyperemia

16

When the proteins escape, it _____ the osmotic pressure in the tissue and pulls more liquid with it

increases

17

When damage occurs, the endothelial cells of the capillaries contract leaving gaps that _____ can escape into the tissue

proteins

18

Escape of some formed elements in the blood into tissue is called _____

exudates

19

Exudate has a specific gravity of ____ or higher, transudates have a specific gravity of _____

1.02, 1.012

20

During a workout, ____ (just liquid, not proteins, etc) leave the blood and go into tissue slightly swelling them making you look ripped.

transudates

21

Formed elements always flow at the ____ of the vessel. This reduces ____ on vessel walls. This is called _____ blood flow

center, friction, laminar(axial)

22

_____ are normally on the periphery of the formed elements

Platelets and RBC's

23

_____ is when damage leads to interruption of the axial blood flow because the RBC's start to clump together and migrate towards the center

Margination

24

WBC's are in the periphery closest to the endothelial cells, when there is damage, the endothelial cells become ____ (have receptors for WBC's) and adhere to the leukocytes and the endothelial cell surface, this is called _____

sticky, pavementing

25

Leukocyte emigration takes place only in the _____, the leukocytes are attached to the receptors and crawl like caterpillars to a gap between endothelial cells, it squeezes itself out of the gap usually taking _____ minutes

post capillary venules, 10

26

Inflammation depends on the character of the _____

exudate

27

____ inflammation is the mildest

Serous

28

fluid - 2nd degree burn- 1st day in common cold

Only _____ escapes into the tissue in serous inflammation. Examples (2)

29

____ inflammation will have fibrin in the exudates. Example:

Fibrinous, Rheumatic Pericarditis

30

Fibrin is a normal protein in the ____

blood

31

_____ is when there is exudate in the pericardial space

Pericarditis

32

In Pericarditis, the exudate has lots of fibrinogen which get changed to fibrin strands that attach to the pericardium, which is _____ and causes _____

irreversible, bruits

33

_____ inflammation is an acute type of exudate inflammation where WBC's in the exudate produce enzymes which causes _____ of the tissues which results in pus formation

Suppurative(purulent), liquefaction

34

_____ is diffuse suppurative inflammation(widespread)

Cellulitis

35

Localized suppurative inflammation is a(n) _____ that develops when an agent of injury cannot be quickly neutralized.

abscess

36

____ should always be removed from an abscess

fluid

37

_____ accumulate at the site of damage in high concentration. When inflammation occurs, the amount of ____ increases, this dilutes the concentration of the toxins in the damaged area

Toxins, fluid

38

____ creates mechanical pressure of ______, which creates pain

Swelling, nocioceptors

39

Also, substances arising from the injury stimulate the pain through ____

chemoreceptors

40

Inflammation promotes _____

phagocytosis

41

_____ is the passive escape of RBC's from the vessels at the area of damage

Diapedesis

42

Neutophils attack ____ infection, Eosinophils attack ____ infection

bacterial, parasitic,

43

Monocytes attack ____ infection, lymphocytes attack ____ infection,

bacterial, viral

44

____ is an outpouring of large amounts of WBC from the blood

Leukocyte emigratiom

45

Cells that participate in Leukocyte emigration (2)

neutrophilsmonocytes/macrophages

46

There are 7-8 times more _____ that are released than _____

neutrophils, monocytes

47

The maximum amount of ___ is 24 hours after the injury, then the steadily decrease in number. ___ keep increasing in numbers as time goes on

neutrophils, Monocytes

48

Without _____, people have no immune response

macrophages

49

____ transfer antigen to immuno-competent cells

Macrophages

50

A _____ is a tumor or growth accompanied by macrophages, fibroblasts, and other cells that are trying to contain the cancerous bodies, they are trying to contain it because they are unable to destroy it.

granuloma

51

WBC that are granulated (3)

NeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophils

52

Neutrophils make up _____ %

55-60%

53

Lymphocytes make up _____ %

20-25%

54

Monocytes make up _____ %

4-8%

55

Eosinophils make up _____ %

2-4%

56

Basophils make up _____ %

0.5-1%

57

____ arrive first at the site of inflammation, ____ arrive second

Neutrophils, Monocytes

58

____ arrive first at the site of inflammation, ____ arrive second

Neutrophils, Monocytes

59

Stages of phagocytosis (4)

Recognition and attachmentengulfingindigestionexocytosis

60

Recognition and attachment, the attraction of phagocyte to inflammation is by ____

chemotaxis

61

Engulfing uses _____ and the formation of _____

pseudopods, vesicles

62

____ is an antibody like substance in neutrophils

Defensins

63

Enzymes are oxygen _____

independent

64

Anions produce _____ and are found in the _____ of phagocytic cells

free radicals, granules

65

Hydrogen peroxide kill bacteria by releasing _____ and mechanically by _____

oxygen, bubbling