Second quiz Flashcards Preview

Path 1 > Second quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Second quiz Deck (64):
1

____ is accumulation of glass like protein

Hyaline change aka hyalinization

2

Intracellular hyaline (4)

reabsorption dropletsdutcher bodiesrussell bodiesmallory bodies

3

Reabsorption droplets cause _____. ______ is a reabsorption droplets disease now known as minimal change disease, and is reversible

proteinuria, Lipoid nephrosis

4

______ has intracytoplasmic inclusions(protein in cytoplasm) of immunoglobins when patient has Lymphoplasmic Lymphoma

Russell bodies

5

______ are intranuclear inclusions(protein in the nucleus)

Dutcher bodies

6

Mallory alcoholic hyaline aka mallory bodies are intracytoplasmic inclusions that accumulate in ______ in alcoholics

hepatocytes

7

Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma is anything other than _____ immunoglobins

IgM

8

Waldenstron Macroglobulinemia involves ____ immunoglobins and is a lymphoma due to a monoclonal tumor from ___ overproduction. ___ and ___ are commonly seen in this cancer.

IgM, B-cell, dutcher, russel bodies

9

______ are monospecific antibodies that are the same because they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell

Monoclonal antibodies(tubules)

10

______ is aka plasma cell myeloma

Multiple myoloma

11

Multiple myoloma involve _____ immunoglobins

IgG

12

_____ is the most common bone malignant tumor in adults, especially in the spine

Multiple myoloma

13

Both Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma & Waldenstron Macroglobulinemia are ___ over production and increase the ___ of the blood

B-cell, viscosity

14

_____ is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma

15

Extracellular Hyaline (2)

Hyalinization in arteriolesamyloidosis

16

Hyalinization in arterioles is caused by long term _____ or ______

hypertension, diabetes mellitus

17

Hyalinization in arterioles makes the arterioles brittle and/or obstructs the lumen, which could lead to (2)

stroke(intracerebral or ischemic)nephrosclerosis (hardening of the kidney)

18

amyloidosis is the deposits of amyloid in _____ & _____

organs, tissues

19

Amyloid is a generic term for a variety of proteins that are abnormally deposited, can be a complication of _____ disorders, and is usually found in (4)

autoimmune, kidneyheartbrainliver

20

______ is an adaptive response to cell changes

Alternative metabolism(os phos, glycolysis)

21

_____ is due to minimal load on vertebral column

Spinal osteoporosis

22

______ is due to viral damage on anterior horn of spinal cord

Poliomyelitis

23

In ______, antibodies block the receptors on the thyroid gland from _____ causing atrophy

Hashimoto's thyroiditis, TSH

24

Hashimoto's thyroiditisis the most common cause of ______. The antibodies attack the ____ and block them.

hypothytroidism, TSH receptors

25

Nerves control all metabolic actions of the body. Loss of neurons means the loss of _____ function

trophic

26

In Grave's disease, the antibodies bind to the receptors and permanently _____ them. Signs of Grave's disease is _____ and ____

stimulate, exopthalamus, toxic Goiter

27

If cell is damaged and the ____ is intact it still has a chance to recover

nuclear envelope

28

_____ are most susceptible to osteoporosis, ____ are least

Blond white women, black women

29

After 25-30 years old, we lose ____% of bone tissue per year

0.7%

30

_____ is the only way to build bone, has to be between _____ years of age

Gravity(weights), 10-30

31

____ blocks macrophages from turning into osteoclasts

Estrogen

32

____ are the coilings resembling the whorled pattern

Myelin figures

33

_____ is the bulging of cytoplasm of an injured cell

Blebs

34

1-2 blebs is ____, more is _____

reversible, irreversible

35

Dispersion of _____ is another sign of cell damage

ribosomes

36

The destruction of the ______ is the most important sign of irreversible changes

nucleus

37

Irreversible change, _____ becomes more permeable.

cell membrane

38

______ is the fragmentation of the nucleus. ___ is the dissolution(melting) of the nucleus. ____ is the condensation(shrinking) of the nucleus

Karyorrhexis, karyolysis, pkynosis

39

____ is the death of cells or tissues through injury or diabetes, especially in a localized area

necrosis

40

When a cell is lethally injured, ____ release enzymes into the cytosol, phagocytes help as well

lysosomes

41

____ promotes elimination of necrotic cell thus promotes healing

Cell digestion

42

______ implies preservation of basic outline of the cell for a span of at least some days

Coagulative necrosis

43

Things that happen in Coagulative necrosis (3)

denaturation of cytoplasm proteinbreakdown of cell organellescell swelling

44

Coagulative necrosis is very important because it prevents _____ from being damaged. Example of this benefit is in _____

tissue, myocardial infarction

45

____ is a zone of necrosis caused by a deficiency of oxygen

Infarct

46

____ infarct develops in single blood vessel supply, ____ infarct develops in tissue with at least 2 blood vessels

white(heart), red(lungs, liver)

47

____ necrosis is the complete digestion of the dead cell

Liquefactive

48

___ necrosis is common in nervous tissue because of the lack of collagen fibers. Example is ____

Liquefactive , stroke

49

____ necrosis ("cheese-like") is amorphous granular debris and composed of fragmented, coagulated cells

Caseous

50

Caseous necrosis is seen in ______ & _____

TB, leprosy

51

TB can involve any part of the body but ____ & ____

hair, nails

52

____ is a chronic bacterial infection that causes nerve damage

Leprosy

53

______ necrosis develops only with syphilis

Gummatous

54

Damage of the posterior horn of the spinal cord in the tertiary period(the most dangerous stage) of syphilis is called ____

tabes dorsalis

55

______ is damage of the brain in the tertiary period of syphilis and occurs in the ____

General paresis of insane(paralytic dementia), gray matter

56

Zenker's necrosis is severe glassy or waxy necrosis of ____ in acute infectious diseases

skeletal muscles

57

Zenker's necrosis is found in _____ & ____

typhoid, snake bites

58

Fat necrosis of adipose tissue aka _____, characterized by formation of _____ when fat is hydrolyzed into glycerol and fatty acids

steatonecrosis, calcium soaps

59

____, is an example of steatonecrosis, is when gall bladder stones block ducts which leads to the degradation(necrosis) of the organ

Pancreonecrosis

60

_____ necrosis occurs in the walls of blood vessels when endothelial cells are injured and dying. Example:

Fibrinoid, rheumatic fever

61

_____ in heart muscle occur in rheumatic myocarditis(not rheumatic fever)

Aschoff's nodes

62

Fibrinoid necrosis is common in ______

immunopathologies

63

rheumatic myocarditis, a fibrinoid necrosis, develops ____, that are seen in intermuscular connective tissue surrounding the inflammatory cells

Aschoff's nodes

64

Intercellular deposition is dangerous and can obstruct the lumen of small vessels that can cause tissue necrosis resulting in ____

lacunar infarction(stroke)