Muscles in the Posterior Compartment of the Leg Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Muscles in the Posterior Compartment of the Leg Deck (77):
1

How many muscles does the posterior compartment of the leg contain?

7

2

How are the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg organised?

Superficial
Deep

3

What separates the two compartments of the posterior compartment of the leg?

A band of fascia

4

How does the size of the posterior compartment of the leg differ from the others?

It is the largest

5

What do the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg collectively do?

Plantarflex and invert the foot

6

What are the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg innervated by?

The tibial nerve

7

What do the superficial muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg form?

The characteristic 'calf' shape of the posterior leg

8

What do all the muscles of the superior compartment of the posterior leg insert into?

The calcaneus of the foot (the heel bone), via the calcaneal tendon

9

What does the calcaneal reflex test?

Spinal roots S1-S2

10

How is friction minimised during movement of the calcaneal tendon?

There are two bursae associated with the tendon

11

What are the bursae associated with the calcaneal tendon?

Subcutaneous calcaneal bursa
Deep bursa of the calcaneal tendon

12

Where does the subcutaneous calcaneal bursa lie?

Between the spin and the calcaneal tendon

13

Where does the deep bursa of the calcaneal tendon lie?

Between the tendon and the calcaneus

14

What are the muscles in the superficial compartment of the anterior leg?

Gastrocnemius
Plantaris
Soleus

15

What is the most superficial of the muscles in the posterior leg?

The gastrocnemius

16

What does the gastrocnemius have?

Two heads, the medial and lateral

17

What happens to the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius?

They converge to form a single muscle belly

18

What does the gastrocnemius muscle consist of?

Mainly fast twitch muscle fibres

19

What do the muscle fibres of the gastrocnemius produce?

Forceful movements, such as running and jumping

20

What is the proximal attachment of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius?

Lateral aspect of the lateral condyle of femur

21

What is the proximal attachment of the medial head of the gastrocnemius?

Popliteal surface of the femur
Superior to medial condyle

22

What is the distal attachment of the gastrocnemius?

Posterior surface of the calcaneous via the calcaneal tendon

23

What is the innervation of the gastrocnemius?

Tibial nerve (S1, S2)

24

What is the arterial supply of the gastrocnemius?

Sural artery
Posterior tibial artery

25

What is the main action of the gastrocnemius?

Plantarflexes ankle when knee is extended
Raises heel during walking
Flexes leg at knee joint

26

What is the proximal attachment of the soleus?

Posterior aspect of head and superior quarter of posterior surface of fibia
Soleal line and middle third of medial border of tibia
Tendinous arch extending between the bony attachments

27

What is the distal attachment of the soleus?

Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon

28

What is the innervation of the soleus?

Tibial nerve (S1, S2)

29

What is the arterial supply of the soleus?

Posterior tibial artery

30

What is the main action of the soleus?

Plantarflexes ankle independent of the position of the knee
Steadies leg on foot

31

What shape is soleus?

Large and flat

32

Where is the soleus located?

Deep to the gastrocnemius

33

How big is the plantaris?

Small

34

What can the long tendon of the plantaris be mistaken for?

A nerve

35

In what % of people is the plantaris absent in?

10%

36

What is proximal attachment of the plantaris?

Inferior end of the lateral supracondylar line of the femur
Oblique popliteal ligament

37

What is the distal attachment of the plantaris?

Posterior surface of the calcaneus via the calcaneal tendon

38

What is the innervation of the plantaris?

Tibial nerve (S1, S2)

39

What is the arterial supply of the plantaris?

Popliteal artery

40

What is the main action of plantaris?

Weakly assists gastrocnemius in plantarflexing the ankle

41

What does rupture of the calcaneal tendon refer to?

A partial or complete tear of the tendon

42

Who is a rupture of calcneal tendon more likely to occur in?

People with a history of calcaneal tendonitis

43

What is calcaneal tendonitis?

Chronic inflammation of the tendon

44

How is a rupture of the calcaneal tendon usually sustained?

During forceful plantarflexion of the foot

45

What normally happens in a rupture of the calcaneal tendon?

The patient will be unable to plantarflex the foot against resistance, and the affected foot will be permanently dorsiflexed

46

What is formed in a rupture of the calcaneal tendon?

A lump in the calf region

47

What forms a lump in the calf region with a rupture of the calcaneal tendon?

The soleus and gastrocnemius can contract

48

What is the treatment for a ruptured calcaneal tendon?

Usually non-surgical, except in those with active lifestyles

49

How many muscles are the in the deep compartment of the posterior leg?

4

50

What are the muscles of the deep compartment of of the posterior leg?

Popliteus
Tibialis posterior
Flexor hallucis longus
Flexor digitorum longus

51

What do the muscles of the deep compartment of the posterior leg act on?

The popliteus acts only on the knee joint
The other three act on the ankle and foot

52

Where is the popliteus located?

Superiorly in the leg, behind the knee joint

53

What does the popliteus form?

The base of the cubital fossa

54

Where does the popliteus bursa lie?

Between the popliteal tendon and the posterior surface of the knee

55

What is the proximal attachment of the popliteus?

Lateral surface of the lateral condyle of the femur and lateral meniscus

56

What is the distal attachment of the popliteus?

Posterior surface of the tibia, superior to the soleal line

57

What is the innervation of the popliteus?

Tibial nerve (L4, L5, S1)

58

What is the arterial supply of the popliteus?

Popliteal artery

59

What is the main action of the popliteus?

Weakly flexes knee and unlocks it by rotating the femur 5º on fixed tibia
Medially rotates tibia of unplanted limb

60

What is the deepest of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?

Tibialis posterior

61

Where does the tibialis posterior lie?

Between the flexor digitorum longus and the flexor hallicus longus

62

What is the proximal attachment of the tibialis posterior?

Interosseous membrane
Posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line
Posterior surface of fibula

63

What is the distal attachment of the tibialis posterior?

Tuberosity of navicular cuneiform, cuboid and sustenaculum tali of calcaneous
Bases of 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsals

64

What is the innervation of the tibialis posterior?

Tibial nerve (L4, L5)

65

What is the arterial supply of the tibialis posterior?

Anterior tibial artery

66

What is the main action of the tibialis posterior?

Plantarflexes ankle
Inverts foot

67

Where is the flexor hallucis longus found?

On the lateral side of the leg

68

What is the proximal attachment of the flexor hallicus longus?

Inferior two thirds of the posterior surface of fibula
Inferior part of interosseous membrane

69

What is the distal attachment of the flexor hallicus longus?

Base of distal phalanx of great toe (hallux)

70

What is the innervation of the flexor hallicus longus?

Tibial nerve (S2, S3)

71

What is the arterial supply of the flexor hallicus longus?

Anterior tibial artery

72

What is the main action of the flexor hallicus longus?

Flexes great toe at all joints
Weakly plantarflexes ankle
Supports medial longitudinal arch of foot

73

Where is the flexor digitorum longus located?

Medially in the posterior leg

74

What is the proximal attachment of the flexor digitorum longus?

Medial part of posterior surface of tibia inferior to soleal line, by a broad tendon to the fibula

75

What is the distal attachment of the flexor digitorum longus?

Bases of distal phalanges of lateral four digits

76

What is the innervation of the flexor digitorum longus?

Tibial nerve (S2, S3)

77

What is the main action of the flexor digitorum longus?

Flexes lateral 4 digits
Plantarflexes the ankle
Supports longitudinal arches of foot