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Flashcards in Nervous system Deck (38):
1

What does the central nervous system consist of

Brain and spinal cord

2

What part of the brain is the hub of the CNS and control centre for controlling muscle actions

Cerebellum

3

What does the spinal cord communicate between

PNS and brain

4

What is the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

All the nerves outside the CNS

5

What are 2 types of neurons

Sensory and Motor

6

What are the to systems within the PNS

Somatic and Automatic

7

What is the somatic system responsible for

Outer areas of body and skeletal muscle, controls voluntary control of movements

8

What can the automatic system be divided into

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

9

What is the automatic system responsible for

Involuntary processes such as hormones and digestion

10

What does the sympathetic system do

Speeds up internal processes during activity

11

What does the parasympathetic system do

Slow down internal processes during activity

12

What are the 3 main parts of a nerve cell

Cell body (Soma), Axon and Dendrites

13

What is the cell body of a neuron for

Cell activities and containing components such as nucleus, mitochondria and ribosomes

14

What is the axon for

Transmitting action potentials
carrying nerve impulse (electro chemical message)

15

What is the axon covered with

Myelin sheath

16

What are dendrites for

They are connected to other cells and carry incoming action potentials

17

How are action potentials created

Controlled movements of sodium and potassium electrolytes

18

What are found at the end of axons

Synaptic endings

19

What is found at synaptic endings

Neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (ACH)

20

How are action potentials transferred between cells

ACH diffuses across synapse and starts another action potential

21

What is a motor unit

A motor neurone and all the muscle fibres it innervates

22

What do large muscles usually have

Motor units containing many muscle fibres

23

What is the force generated by a muscle related to

Number of units recruited and frequency of discharge

24

What are muscle proprioceptors

Act as sensors within the muscle and connective tissue of limbs

25

What do muscle proprioceptors do

Provide feedback of impact of immediate environment of musculoskeletal system to give information about the position of the limbs

26

What are the 2 types of muscle proprioceptors

Muscle spindles and Golgi tendons

27

What do muscle spindles detect

Changes in muscle length

28

What do Golgi tendons detect

Changes in muscle tension

29

What is the stretch reflex mechanism

A protective mechanism to prevent muscle tears

30

How do muscle spindles work

Small sensory unit wrapped like a coil around muscle fibre like a coil, they contract or expand when the muscle lengthens or shortens

31

What is the stretch reflex

When the muscle shortens as a result of rapid contraction

32

How does a Golgi tendon organ detect tension

When the muscle contracts it pulls on the tendon do GTO can measure tension

33

What is the inverse stretch flex

Relaxation response caused by the GTO

34

What do GTO and muscle spindles act as

On and off switches for muscular activity during exercise

35

What technique of training highlights muscle spindles

Plyometrics

36

What is reciprocal inhibition

When a motor unit prevents the antagonist muscle from contracting during agonist contraction

37

What are early strength improvements in resistance training a result of

CNS

38

What improvements to the CNS does training have

Faster reaction time, greater force generation, enhanced stability etc