Principles and guidlines of nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Principles and guidlines of nutrition Deck (80):
1

What are proteins made up of

Amino acids

2

What is a group of amino acids called

A peptide

3

How many amino acids are there

20

4

How many essential amino acids are there

9

5

What are essential amino acids

The 9 amino acids which cannot be synthesised in the body, but they can be used to synthesise the other 11 amino acids

6

What is a complete protein

A protein that contains all 9 essential amino acids

7

What is the main source of complete proteins

Meat, fish, eggs, dairy

8

What Non animal sources of complete proteins are there

Soy, buckwheat and quinoa

9

What are incomplete proteins

Those with less biological value, lack some of the essential amino acids

10

What foods contain incomplete proteins

Plant based proteins

11

What are some of the functions of proteins in the body

Storage
Transport
Mechanical support
Cell response
Antibodies


12

What are hormostatic proteins

Proteins that make up hormones

13

What can be proteins be converted into to provide energy

Ketones

14

What is anabolism

Building up such as protein synthesis

15

What is catabolism

Breaking down into smaller molecules

16

What are the molecules that make up carbohydrates called

Saccharides

17

What are simple carbohydrates

AKA sugars, made of small molecules containing 1 or 2 sugars, mono or di saccharides

18

What can the energy in carbohydrates not be used without

Vitamins and minerals
such as vitamin B

19

What breaks down quicker simple or complex carbs

Simple

20

What simple carbs are found naturally

Fruit

21

What are some properties of natural simple carbs

Contain glucose and sucrose, fibre and antioxidants

22

What are the negative qualities of processed simple carbs

Excessive sugar
Low quality fats
No vitamins or minerals

23

What are complex carbs

made up of polysaccharides also called starch

24

What examples of refined carbs

White bread, white pasta, cakes, biscuits

25

What are some examples of unrefined carbohydrates

Wholemeal, wholegrains, veg, pulses, quinoa

26

What is fibre

Indigestible plant material consisting of non starch polysaccharides

27

Where is fibre found

Plants, veg, grains and beans

28

What is the function of fibre

Provides no energy but aids food down the digestive tract

29

What is insoluble fibre

Found on the outer layer of plants. eg bran, rye, rice, fruit and wheat

30

What is soluble fibre

Found in the inner of plants e.g beans, barley, broccoli, oats, fruits

31

What is GI

A measure of how quickly a carbohydrate is converted to glucose in the body

32

What makes fats important

They are a major source of energy and help absorb vitamins

33

What are fats

Lipids solid at room temperature

34

What are oils

Lipids liquid at room temperature

35

What are fats made up of

Fatty acids and glycerol

36

What vitamins are fat soluble

ABEK

37

What are the main functions of lipids in the body

Form cell membrane
make up some of CNS
Synthesis of steroid hormones
Vitamin storage
Protects organs

38

What are some benefits of fatty acids

Help keep skin healthy and promote weight loss by getting rid of bad cholesterol

39

What are saturated fats

Fats where the chains are saturated with hydrogen bonds (no double bonds)

40

Are saturated fats usually solid or liquid at room temperature

Solid

41

What are animal sources of saturated fat

Dairy, beef, pork, lamb, chicken thighs, venison, duck,

42

What are non animal sources of saturated flat

Coconut oil, palm oil, cocoa oil

43

What are some good qualities of saturated fat

Enhance immune system
provide energy
enhances liver function
Coconut oil can be antimicrobial

44

Are unsaturated fats usually solid or liquid at room temperature

liquid

45

What are monounsaturated fats

The chain only contains 1 double bond

46

What are some benefits of monounsaturated fats

Can lower cholesterol and reduce fat in blood

47

What are some sources of monounsaturated fat

Nuts, seeds, lard, avocado, peanut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, beef dripping

48

What are polyunsaturated fats `

Chain contains more than 1 double bond

49

What are the 2 essential fatty acids which come from poly unsaturated fats

Omega 3 fatty acids and omega 6 fatty acids

50

What are some sources of omega 3 fatty acids

Oily fish, cod liver oil, flax oil, walnut oil, hemp oil, eggs

51

What are some sources of omega 6 fatty acids

Sunflower oil, soybean oil, corn oil, grapeseed oil, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds,

52

What are Trans fats

Solid saturated fats which are formed from liquid unsaturated fats by a process called hydrogenation

53

What type of lipid is most linked with disease

Trans fats

54

What are sources of trans fats

Margarine, pastries, cakes, biscuits, box meals

55

What is cholesterol

A large lipid molecule produced in liver which cannot be used as an energy source

56

What is cholesterol essential for

Synthesis of vitamin D, Production of cell membranes and steroid hormones

57

How much cholesterol is the liver able to produce itself

75%-80%

58

What is used to carry cholesterol and other lipids around the body

Lipoproteins

59

What are the 3 types of lipoproteins

Very low density, low density, high density

60

What are very low lipoproteins

Made in liver and contain glycerol and try glycerides and transport triglycerides around the body

61

What are low density lipoproteins

Formed of low very low density lipoproteins once they have unloaded most of their triglycerides, Transport cholesterol to cells that need it. Cause an increase in blood cholesterol so can be called bad cholesterol

62

What are high density lipoproteins

Made in liver and transfer excess cholesterol back to liver therefor lowering blood cholesterol so can be called good cholesterol

63

What vitamins can be synthesised in the GI

B & K

64

What vitamins are fat soluble

ADEK

65

Function and sources of vitamin A

Bone building, Gastric juices, digestion, vision, protects against pollution
Butter, eggs, liver, seafood, cod liver oil

66

Function and source of vitamin D

Ca % P absorption, Bones and teeth, prevent cancer and MS
Butter, eggs, liver, seafood, cod liver oil

67

Function and sources of vitamin E

Blood circulation, tissue healing, cell structure, slows aging, antioxidant
Veg oils, butter, organ meat, whole grains, nuts and seeds, dark leafy greens

68

Structure and function of vitamin K

Bone Formation, blood clotting
Liver, eggs, butter, wholegrains, dark leafy greens

69

Source and function of vitamin B

nerves, Skin, eyes, hair, muscle tone, fatigue prevention, metabolism, cholesterol, fertility
Whole grains, fruit and veg, nuts, legumes, organ meats

70

Source and functions of vitamin C

Immune system, growth and repair, synthesis of capillary walls, lactation, adrenal gland, connective tissue.
Organ meats, fruit, Veg

71

What are 7 essential minerals

Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, sulphur

72

Function and source of Calcium

Bone growth, pH balance, muscle contraction
Dairy, soft boned fish, leafy greens

73

Function and source of chloride

pH balance regulation, fluid balance, protein and carb digestion
Salt, coconut flesh

74

Function and source of magnesium

Nerve transmission, Bone formation, metabolism of carbs, tooth enamel,
salt, fish, dairy, nuts

75

Function and source of Phosphorus

Bone and cell growth, cellular kidney
Animal produce, wholegrains, nuts and legumes

76

Function and source of potassium

Fluid balance, Cellular chemistry
Sea salt, nuts, veg

77

Function and source of Sodium

Fluid balance, cell fluid distribution, nerve transition
Salt, meat broths, zucchini

78

Function and source of Sulphur

Protects against infection, muscle cell structures, cartilage and skin, protects against radiation and pollution
Cruciferous veg, eggs, dairy

79

What is the purpose of antioxidants

Offset the effects of ageing, help protect cancer and heart disease. Prevent damage caused by oxygen based reactions

80

Where can antioxidants be found.

Vitamin C (Citrus fruits, green veg, peppers, potatoes, tomatoes)
Vitamin E (Veg oils, egg yokes, almonds, whole grains, leafy veg)
Zinc (Oysters, ginger, lamb, nuts, eggs, grains, selenium )