Neurocognitive Disorders (NCD) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurocognitive Disorders (NCD) Deck (22):

NCD: primary clinical deficit in acquired cognitive functioning



NCD: core features are cognitive and have not been present since birth = represent a decline in previous functioning



NCD's are unique due to: ?

pathology & etiology are potentially determined


Major/Mild NCD VS. Delirium

Major/Mild NCD: gradual onset (except for TBI & substance)

Delirium: rapid onset (within hours to days)



A. impairment in attention & awareness

B. rapid onset, fluctuating severity & represents decline from previous functioning

C. impairment in cognition

D. not due to existing or developing NCD or coma

E. evidence that impairment is due to: medical condition, substance or toxin


Major/Mild NCD due to:

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

A. Criteria met for major or mild NCD

B. Evidence of traumatic brain injury (impact to head + 1 or more):
a. Loss of consciousness
b. Posttraumatic amnesia
c. Disorientation/confusion
d. Neurological signs

C. NCD onset immediately after brain injury or regaining consciousness and persists past acute post-injury period


Major/Mild NCD due to:


A. Criteria met for major or mild NCD
B. Slow & gradual onset of impairment in 1+ cognitive domains (mild) or in 2+ (major)
C. Criteria met for either probable or possible alzheimers disease:

i. Probable: (1) or (2)
ii. Possible: neither
1. Evidence of alzheimers genetic mutation
2. All 3 are present:
a. Evidence of decline in memory/learning + 1 other cog domain
b. Progressive, gradual decline in cognition
c. No evidence of mixed etiology

i. Probable: evidence of genetic mutation
ii. Possible: no evidence of genetic mutation + all 3 of the following:
1. Evdicen of decline in memory/learning
2. Progressive, gradual decline in cognition
3. No evidence of mixed etiology

D. Not due to another disorder or substance


major/mild NCD

A. Criteria met for major or mild NCD

B. Impairments don’t occur only during delirium and persist beyond usual duration of intoxication/withdrawal

C. duration and extent of use of substance/medication are capable of producing neurocog impairment

D. course of deficits are consistent with substance/medication use (impairments remain stable or improve with use or abstinence of substance/medication)

E. not due to medical condition or disorder


major/mild NCD due to:

HIV Infection

A. criteria met for major/mild NCD
B. documented infection with HIV
C. not due to non-HIV conditions
D. not due to another medical condition or mental disorder


major/mild NCD due to:

Parkinson's Disease

A. criteria met for major/mild NCD

B. disturbance occurs in setting of established Parkinson’s disease

C. slow, gradual onset & progression of impairment

D. not due to another medical condition or mental disorder

probable (major or mild): (1) & (2) both met
possible (major or mild): either (1) or (2) are met
1. no evidence of mixed etiology
2. Parkinson’s disease precedes onset of NCD


What percentage of the population, in high income countries, in the 80+ age range have Alzheimer's disease?



Memantine, a type of medication used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's, help with?

Memory function, attention, reason and ability to perform tasks


What gene is linked to Alzheimer's disease?

Gene for downs syndrome


________ is a risk factor for Alzheimer's

traumatic brain injury


diet affects the likelihood of a person getting Alzheimer's disease?



6 cognitive domains

1. complex attention

2. executive functioning

3. leanring & memory

4. language

5. perceptual motor

6. social cognition


Complex Attention: 3 sx of Major NCD

cant perform mental calculation
can't hold new information
distracted by multiple stimuli


Executive functioning: 3 sx of Major NCD

abandons complex tasks
relies on others for decision
focus on one task at a time


Learning and memory: 3 sx of Major NCD

can't keep trask of short lists of items
frequent reminders to attend to task
repeats self in conversations


Language: 3 sx of Major NCD

difficulty with expressive language
can't recall names of family/friends
peculiar word usage


Perceptual-motor: 3 sx of Major NCD

difficulty with familiar activities
difficulty navigating in familiar environments
more confused at night


Social cognition: 3 sx of Major NCD

makes decisions with no regard for safety
socially unacceptable behavior
excessive focus on topic depsite group disinterest