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Flashcards in Neurology Deck (142)
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1

What do glaucoma drugs do?

↓ IOP via ↓ amount of aqueous humor (inhibit synthesis/secretion or ↑ drainage).

2

Glaucoma drugs (α-agonists) - What is the mechanism of Ephedrine?

↓ aqueous humor synthesis via vasoconstriction

3

Glaucoma drugs (α-agonists) - What are the side effects of Ephedrine?

Mydriasis; do not use in closed-angle glaucoma

4

Glaucoma drugs (α-agonists) - What is the mechanism of Brimonidine (α2)?

↓ aqueous humor synthesis

5

Glaucoma drugs (α-agonists) - What are the side effects of Brimonidine (α2)?

Blurry vision, ocular hyperemia, foreign body sensation, ocular allergic reactions, ocular pruritus

6

Glaucoma drugs (β-blockers) - What is the mechanism of timolol, betaxolol, and
carteolol?

↓ aqueous humor synthesis

7

Glaucoma drugs (β-blockers) - What are the side effects of timolol, betaxolol, and
carteolol?

No pupillary or vision changes

8

Glaucoma drugs (diuretics) - What is the mechanism of Acetazolamide?

↓ aqueous humor synthesis via inhibition of
carbonic anhydrase

9

Glaucoma drugs (diuretics) - What are the side effects of Acetazolamide?

No pupillary or vision changes

10

Glaucoma drugs (Cholinomimetics) - What is the mechanism of Direct Cholinomimetics (pilocarpine,
carbachol)?

↑ outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork

11

Glaucoma drugs (Cholinomimetics) - What are the side effects of Direct Cholinomimetics (pilocarpine,
carbachol)?

Miosis and cyclospasm (contraction of ciliary muscle)

12

Glaucoma drugs (Cholinomimetics) - What is the mechanism of Indirect Cholinomimetics (physostigmine, echothiophate)?

Use pilocarpine in emergencies—very effective at opening meshwork into canal of Schlemm

13

Glaucoma drugs (Prostaglandin) - What is the mechanism of Latanoprost (PGF2α)?

↑ outflow of aqueous humor

14

Glaucoma drugs (Prostaglandin) - What are the side effects of Latanoprost (PGF2α)?

Darkens color of iris (browning)

15

What are the Opioid Analgesics?

Morphine, fentanyl, codeine, loperamide, methadone, meperidine, dextromethorphan, diphenoxylate

16

What is the mechanism of Opioid Anelgesics?

Act as agonists at opioid receptors (mu = morphine, delta = enkephalin, kappa = dynorphin) to modulate synaptic transmission—open K+ channels, close Ca2+ channels → ↓ synaptic transmission. Inhibit release of ACh, norepinephrine, 5-HT, glutamate, substance P.

17

What is the clinical use of Opioid Anelgesics?

Pain, cough suppression (dextromethorphan), diarrhea (loperamide and diphenoxylate), acute pulmonary edema, maintenance programs for heroin addicts (methadone).

18

What is the toxicity of Opioid Anelgesics?

Addiction, respiratory depression, constipation, miosis (pinpoint pupils), additive CNS depression with other drugs. Tolerance does not develop to miosis and constipation. Toxicity treated with naloxone or naltrexone (opioid receptor antagonist).

19

What is the mechanism of Butorphanol?

Mu-opioid receptor partial agonist and kappa-opioid receptor agonist; produces analgesia.

20

What is the clinical use of Butorphanol?

Severe pain (migraine, labor, etc.). Causes less respiratory depression than full opioid agonists.

21

What is the toxicity of Butorphanol?

Can cause opioid withdrawal symptoms if patient is also taking full opioid agonist (competition for opioid receptors). Overdose not easily reversed with naloxone.

22

What is the mechanism of Tramadol?

Very weak opioid agonist; also inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (works on multiple neurotransmitters—“tram it all” in with tramadol).

23

What is the clinical use of Tramadol?

Chronic pain.

24

What is the toxicity of Tramadol?

Similar to opioids. Decreases seizure threshold. Serotonin syndrome.

25

What is Ethosuximide used for?

Simple:
Complex:
Tonic-Clonic:
Absence: Yes (First line)
Status Epilepticus:

26

What are Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam) used for?

Simple:
Complex:
Tonic-Clonic:
Absence:
Status Epilepticus: Yes (First line for acute)

27

What is Phenytoin used for?

Simple: Yes
Complex: Yes
Tonic-Clonic: Yes (First line)
Absence:
Status Epilepticus: Yes (First line for prophylaxis)

28

What is Carbamazepine used for?

Simple: Yes (First line)
Complex: Yes (First line)
Tonic-Clonic: Yes (First line)
Absence:
Status Epilepticus:

29

What is Valproic acid used for?

Simple: Yes
Complex: Yes
Tonic-Clonic: Yes (First line)
Absence: Yes
Status Epilepticus:

30

What is Gabapentin used for?

Simple: Yes
Complex: Yes
Tonic-Clonic: Yes
Absence:
Status Epilepticus: