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Flashcards in Miscellaneous Deck (13):
1

What is Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning often due to?

Organophosphates (insecticides), such as parathion, that irreversibly inhibit AChE; commonly seen in farmers

2

What does Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning cost?

DUMBBELSS - Diarrhea, Urination, Miosis, Bronchospasm, Bradycardia, Excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, Lacrimation, Sweating, and Salivation

3

What is the antidote for Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning?

Antidote: atropine (competitive inhibitor) + pralidoxime (regenerates AChE if given early)

4

What is Atropine?

Muscarinic antagonist used to treat bradycardia and for ophthalmic applications

5

What are Atropine's actions?

Blocks DUMBBeLSS (skeletal muscle and CNS excitation is mediated by nicotinic receptors).
↑ pupil dilatation, cycloplegia
↓ airway secretions, ↓ gastric acid secretions, ↓ motility, and ↓ urgency in cystitis

6

What are the effects of Atropine toxicity?

↑ body temperature (due to ↓ sweating); rapid pulse; dry mouth; dry, flushed skin; cycloplegia; constipation; disorientation
Can cause acute angle-closure glaucoma in elderly (due to mydriasis), urinary retention in men with prostatic hyperplasia, and hyperthermia in infants.

7

What does Jimson weed (Datura), which has Atropine, cause?

Gardener's pupil (mydriasis due to plant alkaloids)

8

Sympatholytics (α2-agonists) - What are the applications of Clonidine?

Hypertensive urgency (limited situations); does not decrease reneal blood flow
ADHD, severe pain, and a variety of off-label indications (e.g., ethanol and opioid withdrawal)

9

Sympatholytics (α2-agonists) - What toxicity does Clonidine have?

CNS depression, bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory depression, and small pupil size

10

Sympatholytics (α2-agonists) - What are the applications of α-methyldopa?

Hypertension in pregnancy
Safe in pregnancy

11

Sympatholytics (α2-agonists) - What toxicity does α-methyldopa have?

Direct Coombs + hemolytic anemia, SLE-like syndrome

12

What are the Sulfa Drugs?

Probenecid, Furosemide, Acetazolamide, Celecoxib, Thiazides, Sulfonamide antibiotics, Sulfasalazine, Sulfonylureas
(Acronym - Popular FACTSSS)

13

What do patients with sulfa allergies develop?

Fever, UTI, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and urticaria (hives)