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Flashcards in Miscellaneous Deck (13)

What is Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning often due to?

Organophosphates (insecticides), such as parathion, that irreversibly inhibit AChE; commonly seen in farmers


What does Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning cost?

DUMBBELSS - Diarrhea, Urination, Miosis, Bronchospasm, Bradycardia, Excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, Lacrimation, Sweating, and Salivation


What is the antidote for Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning?

Antidote: atropine (competitive inhibitor) + pralidoxime (regenerates AChE if given early)


What is Atropine?

Muscarinic antagonist used to treat bradycardia and for ophthalmic applications


What are Atropine's actions?

Blocks DUMBBeLSS (skeletal muscle and CNS excitation is mediated by nicotinic receptors).
↑ pupil dilatation, cycloplegia
↓ airway secretions, ↓ gastric acid secretions, ↓ motility, and ↓ urgency in cystitis


What are the effects of Atropine toxicity?

↑ body temperature (due to ↓ sweating); rapid pulse; dry mouth; dry, flushed skin; cycloplegia; constipation; disorientation
Can cause acute angle-closure glaucoma in elderly (due to mydriasis), urinary retention in men with prostatic hyperplasia, and hyperthermia in infants.


What does Jimson weed (Datura), which has Atropine, cause?

Gardener's pupil (mydriasis due to plant alkaloids)


Sympatholytics (α2-agonists) - What are the applications of Clonidine?

Hypertensive urgency (limited situations); does not decrease reneal blood flow
ADHD, severe pain, and a variety of off-label indications (e.g., ethanol and opioid withdrawal)


Sympatholytics (α2-agonists) - What toxicity does Clonidine have?

CNS depression, bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory depression, and small pupil size


Sympatholytics (α2-agonists) - What are the applications of α-methyldopa?

Hypertension in pregnancy
Safe in pregnancy


Sympatholytics (α2-agonists) - What toxicity does α-methyldopa have?

Direct Coombs + hemolytic anemia, SLE-like syndrome


What are the Sulfa Drugs?

Probenecid, Furosemide, Acetazolamide, Celecoxib, Thiazides, Sulfonamide antibiotics, Sulfasalazine, Sulfonylureas
(Acronym - Popular FACTSSS)


What do patients with sulfa allergies develop?

Fever, UTI, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and urticaria (hives)