Flashcards in Neuropathology: Basic principles of cerebrovascular disease Deck (19)
What is an axonal reaction?
A reaction within the cell body that is associated with axonal injury
What happens in response to axonal injury?
1. Increased RNA and protein synthesis
2. Swelling of the cell body
3. peripheral displacement of nucleus
4. enlargement of nucleolus
5. central chromatolysis
6. anterograde degeneration of axon occurs distal to site of injury
7. breakdown of myelin sheath
What does gliosis indicate?
Why are neurones so sensitive to hypoxic injury?
They cannot respire anaerobically
What happens at a molecular level when neurones are deprived of oxygen?
Activation of glutamate receptors result in uncontrolled calcium entry into the cell
What is an astrocyte?
A star shaped glial cell
Whats happens to astrocytes when there is damage to the CNS?
They undergo hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The nucleus and cytoplasm also enlarges.
Where do you find ependymal cells?
Lining the ventricular system
How to microglia react in response to CNS damage?
- Develop elongated nuclei
- Congretate around dying neurones
What artery supplies the frontal lobe?
Anterior cerebral artery
A patient experiences loss of sensation if their right foot and leg. they also have weakness in their right arm and foot. What lobe is likely to have been damaged and what artery supplies this?
Left frontal lobe
Left anterior cerebral artery
what does the middle cerebral artery supply?
A patient presenst with weakness in their right arm and leg. They are also having difficulty with speech, using only very few words. What artery is likely to have been occluded?
Middle cerebral artery
What does the vertebrobasilar artery supply?
A patient has homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing. What lobe has most likely been damaged. What artery supplies this lobe?
Ataxia, nystagmus, intention tremor and pendular reflexes are signs of damage to which part of the brain?
If there what an anterior cerebral lesion what would be affected?
Motor function in contralateral foot and leg
What is the most common cause of a subarachnoid haemmorhage?
Ruptured berry anneurysm