Neuropathology: Basic principles of cerebrovascular disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuropathology: Basic principles of cerebrovascular disease Deck (19)
1

What is an axonal reaction?

A reaction within the cell body that is associated with axonal injury

2

What happens in response to axonal injury?

1. Increased RNA and protein synthesis
2. Swelling of the cell body
3. peripheral displacement of nucleus
4. enlargement of nucleolus
5. central chromatolysis
6. anterograde degeneration of axon occurs distal to site of injury
7. breakdown of myelin sheath

3

What does gliosis indicate?

Histopathological injury

4

Why are neurones so sensitive to hypoxic injury?

They cannot respire anaerobically

5

What happens at a molecular level when neurones are deprived of oxygen?

Activation of glutamate receptors result in uncontrolled calcium entry into the cell

6

What is an astrocyte?

A star shaped glial cell

7

Whats happens to astrocytes when there is damage to the CNS?

They undergo hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The nucleus and cytoplasm also enlarges.

8

Where do you find ependymal cells?

Lining the ventricular system

9

How to microglia react in response to CNS damage?

- Proliferate
- Develop elongated nuclei
- Congretate around dying neurones

10

What artery supplies the frontal lobe?

Anterior cerebral artery

11

A patient experiences loss of sensation if their right foot and leg. they also have weakness in their right arm and foot. What lobe is likely to have been damaged and what artery supplies this?

Left frontal lobe
Left anterior cerebral artery

12

what does the middle cerebral artery supply?

Temporal lobe
Insular lobe

13

A patient presenst with weakness in their right arm and leg. They are also having difficulty with speech, using only very few words. What artery is likely to have been occluded?

Middle cerebral artery

14

What does the vertebrobasilar artery supply?

Brain stem
Cerebellum
Occipital lobe

15

A patient has homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing. What lobe has most likely been damaged. What artery supplies this lobe?

Occipital lobe
Vertebrobasilar artery

16

Ataxia, nystagmus, intention tremor and pendular reflexes are signs of damage to which part of the brain?

Cerebellum

17

If there what an anterior cerebral lesion what would be affected?

Motor function in contralateral foot and leg

18

What is the most common cause of a subarachnoid haemmorhage?

Ruptured berry anneurysm

19

A patient presents with a sudden onset severe headache. They are known to have polycystic kidney disease. In a & e they collapse.

Subarachnoid haemmorhage