Muscle and neuromuscular junction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Muscle and neuromuscular junction Deck (27)
1

What kind of motor neurone disorders (lower or upper) present with weakness, low tone and fasiculations?

Lower motor neurone disorders

2

What neurotramsmitter is released across the neuromuscular junction?

Acetylcholine

3

What enzyme breaks down acteylcholine?

Acetylcholinesterase

4

What toxin affects the presynaptic terminal of the neuromuscular junction?

Botulism - Clostridium botulinum

5

What toxin causes rapid onset weakness but with no sensory loss?

Botulism toxin

6

What is lambert eaton myasthenic syndrome?

Antibodies form to presynaptic calcium channels and lead to less vesicle release.

7

What underlying condition is lamber eaton myasethenic syndrome associated with?

Small cell carcinoma

8

What condition affects the post synaptic terminal of the neuromuscular junction?

Myasthenia Gravis

9

In what condition do you get antibodies to ACh receptors?

Myasthenia gravis

10

A man presents with muscle weakness in his face and find his eyes drooping at the end of the day.

Myaesthenia gravis

11

How do the antibodies in myasthenia gravis cause problems?

- Block binding of ACh
- Trigger inflammatory cascade that damages the folds of the postsynaptic membrane

12

What other structure has a role in myaesthenia gravis?

Thymus. 75% of patients with MG have hyperplasia or thymoma

13

What is the drug treatment of choice in myaesthenia gravis?

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor - pyridostigmine

14

What surgical treatment is sometimes required in myasethenia gravis?

Thymectomy

15

What is a fascilation?

A visible fast fine spontaneous twitch

16

Is a fasciculation usually a sign of disease in the motor neurone or the muscle itself?

Motor neurone

17

What kind of muscle do fasciculations occur in?

Denervated muscle which becomes overexcitable

18

What is myotonia?

The failure of muscle relaxation after use

19

Where is the problem is myotonia?

Chloride channel

20

Name two imflammatory muscle disease?

Dermatomyositis
Polymyositis

21

A 54 year old lady comes in complaining of weakness in her things and arms over the last 2 months. Her blood tests show a raised CK

Polymyositis

22

What is the first line treatment for someone with raised CK?

Steroids

23

A 54 year old lady comes in complaining of weakness in her things and arms over the last 2 months. On examination she has a rash across her face.

Dermatomyositis

24

What can dermatomyositis be a sign of?

An underlying malignancy

25

A 75 year old man comes in complaining of muscle weakness in all his muscles apart from his thumb. He says this has been coming on slowly for about 2 years.

Inclusion body myositis

26

What is the inheritance pattern on myotonic dystrophy?

Autosomal dominant

27

A 49 year old women presents with muscle weakness and wasting. She also reports a clouding of her vision and frontal balding. Her mum also had similar symptoms before her death.

Myotonic dystrophy