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Flashcards in Sleep Disorders Deck (29)
1

What type of sleep is narcolepsy a disorder of?

REM

2

In what condition do you get a sudden decrease in voluntary muscle tone occuring with sudden emotion such as laughter?

Cataplexy

3

What is the main symptom of narcolespy?

Excessive daytime tiredness

4

In which condition do you get uncontrollable urges to sleep at inappropriate times such as eating a meal or talking?

Narcolepsy

5

How are narcolepsy and cataplexy related?

Cataplexy is a specific symptom of narcolepsy although narcolepsy can occur without cataplexy

6

In what condition do you feel awake but are unable to move?

Sleep paralysis

7

What is the most common reason for sleep paralysis?

Sleep deprivation

8

What treatments are available for narcolepsy?

Modafinil
Dexamphetamine sulphate
Methylyphenidate
Antidepressents (SSRIs)
Planned naps throughout the day

9

What treatments are available for cataplexy?

Sodium Oxybutate
Clomipramine hydrochloride
SSRI
Amphetamines

10

How do you confirm a diagnosis of narcolepsy?

Multiple sleep latency test

11

You do a LP and take a sample of CSF from someone with narcolepsy/ What are you likely to see?

Low hypocretin

12

What part of the brain is thought to be associated with circadian rhythm, particularly sleep - wakefullness cycle?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus (sita just above the optic chiasm)

13

Is REM or non REM sleep more important?

Non REM

14

In mild sleep deprivation what part of the brain is affected most?

Prefrontal cortex

15

What are the symptoms of sleep deprivation (besides tiredness)

Becoming irritable and suspicious
Visual Illusions
Microsleeps and concentration lapses

16

Give three things that are not affected by the prefrontal cortex

Well rehearsed tasks
Routine behaviour
Logic tasks

17

What sleep disorder is being described here:
1. Sleep walking
2. Sleep terrors
3. Sleep paralysis

Non REM parasomnia

18

In what neurological condition do you see disorders of REM sleep?

Parkinsons disease

19

What is the name given to a sleep disorder in which you act out very vivid dreams whilst you sleep?

REM parasomnia

20

When do REM parasomnias usually occur?

Latter third of the night

21

Why do you get parasomnias?

Part of the brain is awake and part is asleep

22

What is usually the underlying cause of parasomnias?

Sleep deprivation
Stress

23

What is narcolepsy?

Chronic neurological condition involving the loss of the brains ability to regulate sleep wake cycles. People with the conditions get excessive daytime sleepiness

24

What is cataplexy?

a medical condition in which strong emotion or laughter causes a person to suffer sudden physical collapse though remaining conscious
Present in 70% of patients with narcolepsy

25

What are the symptoms seen in narcolepsy?

Daytime sleepiness
Cataplexy
Hypnagogic hallucinations
Sleep paralysis
REM behaviour disorder

26

What investigations would you do in someone who has a sleep disorder?

Overnight polysomnography
Multiple sleep latency test

27

Describe the multiple sleep latency test

4 x 25 minute naps are scheduled throughout the day
During these naps there is recording of EEG, muscle activity and eye movement
Measures how fast the patient falls asleep and therefore assesses their degree of daytime sommolence.

28

What substance, found in CSF might be low in narcolepsy?

Hypocretin

29

What three investigations would you do for suspected narcolepsy?

1. Multiple sleep latency test
2. Hypocretin level - low in narcolepsy
3. Overnight polysomnography