Physiology: Neurones, nerve conduction and synaptic transmission Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology: Neurones, nerve conduction and synaptic transmission Deck (21)
1

What is retrograde transport, in the context of neurones?

The fact that material can be transported between the soma (cell body) and presynaptic terminal and vice versa.

2

Name three disease processes that make use of retrograde transport to infect neurones?

Herpes
Polio
Rabies

3

Give an example of a unipolar neurone

Peripheral autonomic neurone

4

Give an example of a pseudounipolar neurone

Dorsal root ganglion

5

Give an example of a bipolar neurone

Retinal bipolar neurone

6

Give an example of a multipolar neurone

Lower motor neurone

7

What is the length constant (λ)?

A constant used to quantify the distance that a graded electric potential will travel along a neurite via passive electrical conduction.

8

Will the local current spread be longer or shorter with a larger length constant

larger

9

What is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS?

Glutamate

10

What is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS?

GABA ( γ-aminobutyric acid) or glycine

11

Is a excitatory response depolarizing or hyperpolarizing?

Depolarizing

12

Is an inhibitory response depolarizing or hyperpolarizing?

Hyperpolarizing

13

What kind of receptors does glutamate activate?

Cation selective, ionotropic glutamate receptors

14

What kind of receptors does GABA or glycine activate?

Anion selective ionotropic recpetors

15

What are the three main morphological types of synpase. List from most common to least common!

1. Axodendritic
2. Axosomatic
2. Axoaxonic

16

What is a synapse?

A junction between two neurones (most commonly between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next)

17

Describe briefly the events that occur at a synapse

1. Action potential triggers the opening of voltage gated calcium channels
2. This causes the release of neurotransmitter from some of the synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft.
3. This neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds with specific protein receptor sites and activates changes the ion permeability there.

18

With regard to Na+ and K+ describe the differences between excitatory and inhibitory synapses.

Change in permeability at excitatory synapses results in the influx of sodium into the postsynaptic neurone whereas inhibitory synapses result in the influx of chlorine into the postsynaptic neurone.

19

Name three amino acid neurotransmitter substances

Glutamate
GABA
Glycine

20

Name 5 amine neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine
Dopamine
Noradrenaline
Seratonin
Histamine

21

Name 8 peptide neurotransmitters

Cholecystokinin
Dynorphin
Enkaphalins
Neuropeptide
Y
Somatostatin
Substance P
Thyrotrophin releasing hormone
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide