Neurophysio of Reward and Addiction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurophysio of Reward and Addiction Deck (84)
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1

Motivation is a process that mediates goal-directed responses or goal-seeking behavior to changes in the _______ or _______ _______.

external; internal environment

2

Reinforcement is the consequence of operant/learned behaviors that ______ ____ ______ that a behavior will be ______ under similar conditions each time.

alters the probability; repeated

3

Saliency is something important in the _____ ______ worth paying attention to.

surrounding environment

4

What is a reward?

Objects, stimuli, or activities that have positive value.

5

Aversion is a ______ reinforcement of behavior that the individual will learn to ____ in future encounters.

negative; avoid

6

Pleasure is a _____ sensation often referred to as ______ or ______.

positive; eupohore; hedonia

7

The physiologic purpose of pleasure is to promote behaviors that are consistent with _____ __ ____ and the _____.

survival of self; species

8

What are natural rewards elicited by?

caring for young, palatable food, mating, and exercise

9

______ neurons encode the discrepancy between reward predictions and information about the actual reward received and broadcast the signal downstream to reward centers in the brain.

Dopaminergic

10

An unpredicted reward elicits an activation called a ______ ______ ______.

positive prediction error

11

A fully predicted reward elicits _____ _____.

no response

12

Omission of a predicted reward elicits a ______.

depression

13

Over repeated drug use, the repetition of reward prediction error (RPE) signals would ______ drug-related cues and behaviors.

reinforce

14

_______ _______ produce error-correcting DA-RPE signals only until the predictions match the actual events.

Natural rewards

15

_______ is associated with the reinforcing effects of most drugs of abuse.

Dopamine

16

Drugs of abuse increase _______ _______ concentrations in limbic regions, including the nucleus accumbens.

extracellular dopamine

17

Drugs of abuse provide _____ and _____ increases in dopamine than natural reinforces such as food and sex.

longer; larger

18

Which drugs increase dopamine directly?

cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy

19

Which drugs increase dopamine indirectly via other neuron receptors?

nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and marijuana

20

Salience refers to a stimuli or environmental changes that are ______ or elicit an ______-______ switch.

arousing; attentional-behavioral

21

Salience affects the ______ to seek an anticipated reward and facilitates _____ _____.

motivation; conditioned learning

22

Because dopamine is involved in the _____ of reward and ______, drug-induced increases in dopamine will inherently motivate further procurement of more drug, regardless or whether or not the effects of the drug are perceived as pleasurable.

prediction; salience

23

Salience leads to a situation in which _____ _____ associated with the drug can increase dopamine themselves and elicit the desire for the drug.

sensory stimuli

24

What does the mesolimbic system consist of?

nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area (VTA), limbic system, and pre-frontal cortex

25

What are the important neurotransmitters in the mesolimbic system?

dopamine, GABA, opioids, EAAs, dynorphin, and orexin

26

The main function of the nucleus accumbens is to _____ sensations of pleasure/reward.

suppress

27

The nucleus accumbens is _______ ______ by a constant trickle of EAAs like glutamate.

constitutively activated

28

The nucleus accumbens neurons are GABAergic meaning the activation of these neurons stimulate them to _____ _____.

release GABA

29

GABA is _____, so stimulation of nucleus accumbens neurons will _____ their target.

inhibitory; inhibit

30

Constitutive inhibition of the pre-frontal cortex targets keeps the brain in a ______-_____ state.

reward-neutral