Flashcards in Neurophysio of Reward and Addiction Deck (84)
Motivation is a process that mediates goal-directed responses or goal-seeking behavior to changes in the _______ or _______ _______.
external; internal environment
Reinforcement is the consequence of operant/learned behaviors that ______ ____ ______ that a behavior will be ______ under similar conditions each time.
alters the probability; repeated
Saliency is something important in the _____ ______ worth paying attention to.
What is a reward?
Objects, stimuli, or activities that have positive value.
Aversion is a ______ reinforcement of behavior that the individual will learn to ____ in future encounters.
Pleasure is a _____ sensation often referred to as ______ or ______.
positive; eupohore; hedonia
The physiologic purpose of pleasure is to promote behaviors that are consistent with _____ __ ____ and the _____.
survival of self; species
What are natural rewards elicited by?
caring for young, palatable food, mating, and exercise
______ neurons encode the discrepancy between reward predictions and information about the actual reward received and broadcast the signal downstream to reward centers in the brain.
An unpredicted reward elicits an activation called a ______ ______ ______.
positive prediction error
A fully predicted reward elicits _____ _____.
Omission of a predicted reward elicits a ______.
Over repeated drug use, the repetition of reward prediction error (RPE) signals would ______ drug-related cues and behaviors.
_______ _______ produce error-correcting DA-RPE signals only until the predictions match the actual events.
_______ is associated with the reinforcing effects of most drugs of abuse.
Drugs of abuse increase _______ _______ concentrations in limbic regions, including the nucleus accumbens.
Drugs of abuse provide _____ and _____ increases in dopamine than natural reinforces such as food and sex.
Which drugs increase dopamine directly?
cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ecstasy
Which drugs increase dopamine indirectly via other neuron receptors?
nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and marijuana
Salience refers to a stimuli or environmental changes that are ______ or elicit an ______-______ switch.
Salience affects the ______ to seek an anticipated reward and facilitates _____ _____.
motivation; conditioned learning
Because dopamine is involved in the _____ of reward and ______, drug-induced increases in dopamine will inherently motivate further procurement of more drug, regardless or whether or not the effects of the drug are perceived as pleasurable.
Salience leads to a situation in which _____ _____ associated with the drug can increase dopamine themselves and elicit the desire for the drug.
What does the mesolimbic system consist of?
nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area (VTA), limbic system, and pre-frontal cortex
What are the important neurotransmitters in the mesolimbic system?
dopamine, GABA, opioids, EAAs, dynorphin, and orexin
The main function of the nucleus accumbens is to _____ sensations of pleasure/reward.
The nucleus accumbens is _______ ______ by a constant trickle of EAAs like glutamate.
The nucleus accumbens neurons are GABAergic meaning the activation of these neurons stimulate them to _____ _____.
GABA is _____, so stimulation of nucleus accumbens neurons will _____ their target.