Hypothalamic-Pituitary Relationships and Biofeedback Part 1 - DR Creamer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Relationships and Biofeedback Part 1 - DR Creamer Deck (67)
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1

The ______ ____ is the physical connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

hypophysial stalk

2

Due to anatomical location, tumors in the pituitary expand and put pressure on the ____ ___.

optic nerves

3

The posterior pituitary is derived from neural tissue whose cells bodies are located in the hypothalamus. These nuclei are the _____ nucleus and the _____ nucleus.

supraoptic; paraventricular

4

The supraoptic nucleus (SON) secretes _____.

ADH

5

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) secretes ____.

oxytocin

6

The anterior pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus by the _____-_____ ____ ____.

hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system

7

The anterior pituitary secretes what 6 hormones?

ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, GH, and prolactin.

8

Hormones do not appear in ____ concentration in systemic circulation from the hypothalamus because they can be ____ delivered to the anterior pituitary in ___ concentrations.

high; directly; high

9

The connections between the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary are ____, whereas the connections between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary are ____ and ____.

neural; neural; endocrine

10

What constitutes the 3 families of the anterior pituitary?

ACTH family; TSH, FSH, LH family; GH, prolactin family.

11

TRH in the hypothalamus targets thyrotrophs in the APit to secrete ____.

TSH

12

CRF in the hypothalamus targets corticotrophs in the APit to secrete ____.

ACTH

13

GnRH in the hypothalamus targets gonadotrophs in the APit to secrete ____.

LH and FSH

14

GHRH in the hypothalamus targets somatotrophs in the APit to secrete ____.

GH

15

______ (____) in the hypothalamus targets somatotrophs in the APit to inhibit secretion of GH.

Somatostatin; GHIH

16

A PIF (such as dopamine) in the hypothalamus targets lactotrophs s in the APit to inhibit secretion of ____.

PRL (prolactin)

17

Elevated TRH in the hypothalamus targets lactotrophs in the APit to secrete ____.

PRL

18

A ____ endocrine disorder is high or low levels of a hormone due to a defect in the peripheral endocrine gland.

primary

19

A ____ endocrine disorder is high or low levels of a hormone due to a defect in the pituitary gland.

secondary

20

A ____ endocrine disorder is high or low levels of a hormone due to a defect in the hypothalamus.

tertiary

21

Extreme energy deficits, extreme exercise, and depression can inhibit ____ function.

GnRH

22

FSH and LH promotes ____ and ____ secretion in female and ____ production in males.

estrogen; progesterone; testosterone

23

Normal menstrual cycle depends on ___ and ___.

LH and FSH

24

Describe the HPG axis in females.

GnRH > LH & FSH > androgens & progestins and estrogens

25

Describe the HPG axis in males.

GnRH > LH & FSH > testosterone & androgen-binding protein and spermatogenesis

26

_____ is secreted by the Sertoli cell in males and the Granulosa cell in females and inhibits FSH synthesis in the pituitary gland.

Inhibin

27

____ is characterized by excessive growth of soft tissue, cartilage, and bone in the face, hands, and feet. It is caused by prolonged and excessive secretion of ____ ____ in adult life.

Acromegaly; growth hormone

28

Growth hormone is produced by _____.

somatotropin

29

Growth hormone targets the ___ and ___.

liver; bone

30

Growth hormone is inhibited by _____ and ___.

somatostatin; IGF-1