Hypothalamic-Pituitary Relationships and Biofeedback Part 2 - DR L-H Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Relationships and Biofeedback Part 2 - DR L-H Deck (69)
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1

____ ____ are located immediately above the kidneys.

Adrenal glands

2

Zona glomerulosa secretes ____.

aldosterone

3

Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis secrete _____ and _____.

cortisol; androgens

4

The medulla secretes ______ and ______.

epinephrine; norepinephrine

5

_____ and _____ are rapid responders to stress.

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

6

____ is a longer-acting stress-response steroid hormone that regulates glucose utilization and immune and inflammatory homeostasis.

Cortisol

7

_____ regulates salt and volume homeostasis.

Aldosterone

8

The HPA axis is under negative feedback control by ____.

cortisol

9

Describe the HPA axis.

CRH>ACTH>cortisol & androgens

Cortisol inhibits ACTH and CRH.

10

Cortisol causes immune ____, ______, protein ____, and ____.

suppression; gluconeogenesis; catabolism; lipolysis

11

Cortisol secretion is ___ in the morning and ___ in the late evening.

high; low

12

Describe the regulation of aldosterone secretion.

Low blood volume, low BP, low Na+, or high K+ causes increased Angiotensin I production, increasing secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, causing increased absorption of Na+ and water, and increased K+ excretion, increasing blood volume and BP.

13

A patient with high plasma cortisol levels and low plasma ACTH levels would have a _____ endocrine syndrome due to a ____ ___.

primary; adrenal tumor

14

Truncal obesity, moon face, buffalo hump, purple striae, and hirsutism are all symptoms of _____ syndrome.

Cushing's

15

A low-dose dexamethasone tests for _____ _____, but does not specify the source of ACTH overproduction.

Cushing's syndrome

16

A high-dose dexamethasone tests for ____ ____, specifying CS caused by a pituitary adenoma or a non-pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor.

Cushing's disease

17

A high-dose dexamethasone test that results in a decrease in ACTH determines that it is _____ _____.

Cushing's disease

18

A high-dose dexamethasone test that results in no change in ACTH levels determines that it is caused by an ____ ____.

ectopic tumor

19

Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome is caused by excess exogenous glucocorticoid drugs which cause the symptoms of excess ____, but in reality, levels of ___ are actually low.

cortisol; cortisol

20

Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenal tumor will have high levels of cortisol, and ___ levels of ACTH.

low

21

Cushing's syndrome caused by an ectopic ACTH secreting-tumor will have high levels of cortisol, ___ levels of pituitary secreting ACTH, and ___ levels of ectopic ACTH.

low; high

22

Cushing's syndrome caused by an ectopic ACTH-secreting tumor will respond to a high dexamethasone test by doing what?

Not changing the levels of ACTH at all.

23

Cushing's disease will respond to a high dexamethasone test by doing what?

Decreasing ACTH due to negative feedback loop.

24

Cushing's disease will have high levels of cortisol and ___ levels of pituitary secreting ACTH.

high

25

What causes Cushing's disease?

A pituitary tumor

26

An adrenal tumor will cause ___ levels of ACTH.

low

27

A pituitary tumor will cause ___ levels of ACTH.

high

28

An ACTH-secreting ectopic tumor will cause ___ levels of ACTH.

very high

29

Exogenous administration of glucocorticoids may ____ adrenal cells that produce cortisol.

atrophy

30

_____ disease is an autoimmune response that attacks the adrenal cortex.

Addison's