Neurophysio of Higher Cognition Flashcards Preview

NeuroEndo Test 3 > Neurophysio of Higher Cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurophysio of Higher Cognition Deck (45)
Loading flashcards...
1

At a neuronal level, ______ is produced by extensive synaptic interactions produced by the pyramidal neurons of the neocortical association areas.

cognition

2

Cognition includes what 6 things?

language, social cognition, decision making, executive functioning, memory, and visuospatial processing

3

The language implementation system for speaking involves ______ ____, the ______ ______, _____ ____, and the ____ ____ of the motor cortex.

Wernicke's area; arcuate fasciculus; Broca's area; facial area

4

The _______ ______ for language includes a number of areas in the temporal, parietal, and frontal association areas.

mediational system

5

The mediational system relays information to the ______ ______ _____.

language implementation system

6

The ______ _____ is broadly distributed and provides the concepts underlying our language.

conceptual system

7

The conceptual system provides the ______ and _____ of speech.

concepts; rules

8

Babies younger than 6 months are referred to as ______ ______, meaning they recognize all sounds that might be language as distinct sounds.

language universalists

9

Between 6-9 months old, babies' brains change and start to recognize the specific language sounds of their native language so they drop the use of _____ that don't occur in their language.

phonemes

10

Language comprehension ______ the ability to talk.

precedes

11

A second language learned during the language acquisition phase activates the ____ pathway as the first language.

same

12

A second language learned after the language acquisition phase activates an _____ ____ of _____ ____.

adjacent region; Broca's area

13

_______ ______ is an important factor in our ability to function in interpersonal and social situations.

Social cognition

14

Social cognition is divided into ______ _____ and _____ ___ ____.

emotion comprehension (recognition); theory of mind

15

____ _____ is an individual's ability to infer the emotional state of another from observable info, such as prosody and facial expression.

Social cognition

16

The neural circuits for recognizing emotion in others are also involved in _____ ____ _____ ______.

producing that emotion ourselves.

17

Step 1 of emotion comprehension is that the perception of facial expressions requires that we identify a face as something special. This facial recognition occurs in the _____ _____ _____ and _____ ____.

superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus

18

Identifying the emotion in emotion comprehension occurs via the _____ ____ ____, _____, and _____ ____.

anterior cingulate cortex; amygdala; prefrontal cortex

19

The facial details that cue us as to what emotion we are seeing in another person are concentrated in a triangle containing the _____, _____, and _____.

eyes; nose; mouth

20

The _____ controls the use of the eyes and directs the gaze to the triangle (particularly the eyes) when looking at human faces.

amygdala

21

An individual with damage to the amygdala spends very little time looking at the ____ of another and doesn't methodically ____ the face, so they miss emotional context.

eyes; scan

22

_____ neurons fire both when you do something and when you see someone else do that same action.

Mirror

23

The posterior sector of the superior temporal sulcus provides the ____ ____ in emotion recognition.

visual input

24

The posterior mirror neuron system identifies the _____ ____.

motor action

25

The anterior mirror neuron system identifies the ____ of the action.

goal

26

_____ _____ is crucial to developing social cognitive skills because we tend to imitate emotional state/behavior as well as motor behavior.

Imitative behavior

27

The circuit for imitating is believed to interact with limbic structures via the _____.

insula

28

_____ is the study of the tune and rhythm of speech and how these features contribute to meaning.

Prosody

29

Step 1 in the perception of prosody occurs in the ____ ____ ____ and is required for the basics of sound processing including the identify of ____, _____, and _____ of sound.

primary auditory cortex; pitch; loudness; speed

30

Step 2 in the perception of prosody occurs in the right _____ ____ _____ ____ where we begin to piece together the _____ of the vocalization.

posterior superior temporal sulcus; meaning