Flashcards in Intro to Endocrine System Deck (61)
What is autocrine signaling?
The hormone secreted from one cell type effects the same cell or the same type of cell.
What is paracrine signaling?
The hormone secreted from one cell type effects a different type of cell.
What is endocrine signaling?
The hormone secreted from one cell type travels through the bloodstream before effecting a cell of a different type.
What is neuroendocrine signaling?
The hormone secreted from a neuron travels through the bloodstream to affect a cell of a different type.
What hormones does the hypothalamus secrete? (6)
TRH, CRH, GnRH, GHRH, Somatostatin, and Dopamine
What hormones does the anterior pituitary secrete? (7)
TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, MSH, Growth Hormone, and Prolactin
What hormones does the posterior pituitary secrete? (2)
Oxytocin and ADH
What hormones does the thyroid release? (3)
T3, T4, and Calcitonin
What hormone does the parathyroid release? (1)
What hormones does the pancreas release? (2)
Insulin and Glucagon
What hormones does the adrenal medulla release? (2)
Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
What hormones does the kidney release? (2)
Renin and 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol
What hormones does the adrenal cortex release? (3)
Cortisol, Aldosterone, and Adrenal androgens
What hormone does the testes release? (1)
What hormones do the ovaries release? (2)
Estradiol and Progesterone
What hormones does the corpus luteum release? (2)
Estradiol and Progesterone
What hormones does the placenta release? (4)
HCG, Estriol, Progesterone, and hPL
What is the sequence of peptide hormone synthesis?
DNA>mRNA>preprohormone (in ER)>prohormone (golgi apparatus)>hormone (secretory vesicles)
Proteolytic enzymes cleave to form a ______ ______.
An endocrine cell stimulus such as increased intracellular _____ or increased _____ and ____ activation, cause release of peptide hormone.
calcium; cAMP; PKA
______ hormones are synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex, gonads, corpus luteum, and placenta.
____ hormones are derived from tyrosine.
______ are synthesized in the cytosol and secretory granules and act through cell-membrane associated receptors.
Thyroid hormones are synthesized by thyroid gland and stored as ______ in follicles within the gland.
Thyroid hormones cross the cell membrane and act through _____ _____.
The more protein binding, the _____ the plasma half life and the _____ the metabolic clearance (for the most part).
The ______ mechanism of hormone secretion is where neuronal input increases or decreases hormonal stimulation.
The feedback mechanisms of hormone secretion is when some element of the pathway feeds back, directly or indirectly, on the endocrine gland to change _____ ____.
_____ endocrine feedback is when some feature of hormone action causes additional secretion of the hormone.