Intro to Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

NeuroEndo Test 3 > Intro to Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Endocrine System Deck (61)
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1

What is autocrine signaling?

The hormone secreted from one cell type effects the same cell or the same type of cell.

2

What is paracrine signaling?

The hormone secreted from one cell type effects a different type of cell.

3

What is endocrine signaling?

The hormone secreted from one cell type travels through the bloodstream before effecting a cell of a different type.

4

What is neuroendocrine signaling?

The hormone secreted from a neuron travels through the bloodstream to affect a cell of a different type.

5

What hormones does the hypothalamus secrete? (6)

TRH, CRH, GnRH, GHRH, Somatostatin, and Dopamine

6

What hormones does the anterior pituitary secrete? (7)

TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, MSH, Growth Hormone, and Prolactin

7

What hormones does the posterior pituitary secrete? (2)

Oxytocin and ADH

8

What hormones does the thyroid release? (3)

T3, T4, and Calcitonin

9

What hormone does the parathyroid release? (1)

PTH

10

What hormones does the pancreas release? (2)

Insulin and Glucagon

11

What hormones does the adrenal medulla release? (2)

Norepinephrine and Epinephrine

12

What hormones does the kidney release? (2)

Renin and 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol

13

What hormones does the adrenal cortex release? (3)

Cortisol, Aldosterone, and Adrenal androgens

14

What hormone does the testes release? (1)

Testosterone

15

What hormones do the ovaries release? (2)

Estradiol and Progesterone

16

What hormones does the corpus luteum release? (2)

Estradiol and Progesterone

17

What hormones does the placenta release? (4)

HCG, Estriol, Progesterone, and hPL

18

What is the sequence of peptide hormone synthesis?

DNA>mRNA>preprohormone (in ER)>prohormone (golgi apparatus)>hormone (secretory vesicles)

19

Proteolytic enzymes cleave to form a ______ ______.

Functional hormone

20

An endocrine cell stimulus such as increased intracellular _____ or increased _____ and ____ activation, cause release of peptide hormone.

calcium; cAMP; PKA

21

______ hormones are synthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex, gonads, corpus luteum, and placenta.

Steroid

22

____ hormones are derived from tyrosine.

Amine

23

______ are synthesized in the cytosol and secretory granules and act through cell-membrane associated receptors.

Catecholamines

24

Thyroid hormones are synthesized by thyroid gland and stored as ______ in follicles within the gland.

thyroglobulin

25

Thyroid hormones cross the cell membrane and act through _____ _____.

nuclear receptors

26

The more protein binding, the _____ the plasma half life and the _____ the metabolic clearance (for the most part).

longer; slower

27

The ______ mechanism of hormone secretion is where neuronal input increases or decreases hormonal stimulation.

neural

28

The feedback mechanisms of hormone secretion is when some element of the pathway feeds back, directly or indirectly, on the endocrine gland to change _____ ____.

secretion rate

29

_____ endocrine feedback is when some feature of hormone action causes additional secretion of the hormone.

Positive

30

Examples of positive endocrine feedback include _____ and ____ _____.

ovulation; labor contractions