Physiology of Learning and Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology of Learning and Memory Deck (59)
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1

_____ is the acquisition of new information (facts).

Learning

2

_____ is the retention of new information.

Memory

3

Together, learning and memory enable us to _____ ___ _____.

modify our behavior

4

______ ____ is skills and habits that have been used so much that they are automatic.

Procedural memory

5

Procedural memory has anatomic substrates in the _____ for motor skills and _____ for non-motor skills.

cerebellum; nucleus accumbens

6

Procedural memory is aka _____ memory, __-_____ memory, or _____ memory.

implicit; non-declarative; reflexive

7

______ ______ is the memory of events, experiences, and facts.

Declarative memory

8

Declarative memory is aka _____ memory.

explicit

9

Declarative memory is subdivided into _____ and _____ memories.

episodic; semantic

10

Episodic memory is the memory of _____.

events

11

Semantic memory is the memory of ____, _______, and ____.

words; language; rules

12

_____ ____ is recalling a fact/memory for use; it may be a subset of ____-____ memory.

Working memory; short-term

13

The production of memory and learning requires the induction of _____ and _____ plasticity.

neuronal; synaptic

14

______ is alteration in the brain based on use and may be functional or anatomic.

Plasticity

15

Plasticity due to changes in synaptic functioning can be due to ____-_____ ______ or ____-____ _______.

post-tetanic potentiation; long-term potentiation

16

Plasticity due to changes in the structure of neurons can be due to gain/loss of ______, structural changes in ______, or structural changes in the ____.

synapses; dendrites; soma

17

___-______ ________ works by first, a highly active neuron for a short period of time, leading to a large increase in Ca2+ entering the cell (more than can be dealt with), causing more vesicles to fuse, leading to greater neurotransmitter release and a greater probability of action potentials in the post-synaptic cell.

Post-tetanic stimulation

18

____-____ _______ is a series of changes in the pre- and post-synaptic neurons of a synapse which leads to increased response to the released neurotransmitter.

Long-term potentiation

19

LTP is an increase in neurotransmitter ______ and an increase in _____ to the neurotransmitter.

release; response

20

LTP usually follows _____ _______.

strong stimulation

21

LTP is associated with gene transcription related to increased _____ which links synaptic functional change and structural change.

CREB

22

The proteins produced in neuronal plasticity include NT ______ _____, NT _______, and ______ _____.

synthetic enzymes; receptors; structural proteins

23

Learning and the formation of new memories can be blocked by blocking ______ _______.

protein synthesis

24

In post-tetanic potentiation, increased activity increases the amount of _______ in pre-synaptic terminal which increases ______ release.

calcium; NT

25

LTP is changes in both pre- and post-synaptic responses to NT release so the same NT release creates a _____ _____ which lasts _____.

larger response; longer

26

_____ is involved changes in synapse structure (permanent) and creation of new synapses via _____ _____.

CREB; protein synthesis

27

What are the four steps in creating declarative memories?

1) Encoding
2) Storage of the information
3) Consolidation
4) Retrieval

28

In ______, one is attending to new info and linking it to previous memories.

encoding

29

Emotion is an important component of ______.

encoding

30

What step of creating declarative memories involves the retention of information over time (short term memory)?

step 2: storage of the information